Enciclopédia Mackey – BREAD ~ BY-LAWS

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES
by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D.

B

BREAD, CONSECRATED

Consecrated bread and wine, that is to say, bread and wine used not simply for food, but made sacred by the purpose of symbolizing a bond of brotherhood, and the eating and drinking of which are sometimes called the Communion of the Brethren, is found in some of the advanced Degrees, such as the Order of High Priesthood in the American Rite, and the Rose Croix of the French and Scottish Rites.

It was in ancient times a custom religiously observed, that those who sacrificed to the gods should unite in partaking of a part of the food that had been offered. And in the Jewish Church it was strictly commanded that the sacrificers should ”eat before the Lord,” and unite in a feast of joy on the occasion of their offerings. By this common partaking of that which had been consecrated to a sacred purpose, those who partook of the feast seemed to give an evidence and attestation of the sincerity with which they made the offering ; while the feast itself was, as it were, the renewal of the covenant of friendship between the parties.

BREADTH OF THE LODGE

See Form of the Lodge

BREAST

In one of the Old Lectures, quoted by Doctor Oliver, it is said : ”A Mason’s breast should be a safe and sacred repository for all your just and lawful secrets. A brother’s secrets, delivered to me as such, I would keep as my own; as to betray that trust might be doing him the greatest injury he could sustain in this mortal life; nay, it would be like the villainy of an assassin who lurks in darkness to stab his adversary when unarmed and least prepared to meet an enemy.”

It is true, that the secrets of a Freemason, confided as such, should be as inviolate in the breast of him who has received them as they were in his own before they were confided. But it would be wrong to conclude that in this a Freemason is placed in a position different from that which is occupied by every honorable man. No man of honor is permitted to reveal a secret which he has received under the pledge of secrecy.

Nevertheless, it is as false as it is absurd, to assert that either the man of honor or the Freemason is bound by any such obligation to protect the criminal from the vindication of the law. It must be left to every man to determine by his own conscience whether he is at liberty to betray a knowledge of facts with which he could not have become acquainted except under some such pledge. No court of law would attempt to extort a communication of facts made known by a penitent to his confessor or a client to his lawyer for such a communication would make the person communicating it infamous. In this case, Freemasonry supplies no other rule than that which is found in the acknowledged codes of Moral Ethics.

BRIEF

The dipioma or certificate in some of the advanced degrees is so called.

BRIGHT

A Freemason is said to be bright who is well acquainted with the ceremonies, the forms of opening and closing, and the ceremonies of initiation. This expression does not, however, in its technical sense, appear to include the superior knowledge of the history and science of the Institution, and many bright Freemasons are, therefore, not necessarily learned; and, on the contrary, some learned Freemasons are not well versed in the exact phraseology of the ceremonies. The one knowledge depends on a retentive memory, the other is derived from deep research. It is scarcely necessary to say which of the two kinds of knowledge is the more valuable. The Freemason whose acquaintance with the Institution is confined to what he learns from its esoteric ceremonies will have but a limited idea of its science and philosophy. And yet a knowledge of the ceremonies as the foundation of higher knowledge is essential.

BRITHERING

The Scotch term for Masonic initiation.

BRITISH COLUMBIA

A province in the western Dominion of Canada. The first Lodge established in this province was Victoria, No. 783, by the Grand Lodge of England, March 19, 1859. In 1871 the Grand Lodge of England had four Lodges and the Grand Lodge of Scotland five Lodges. A Convention was held on October 21, 1871; eight out of the nine Lodges were represented, and the Grand Lodge of British Columbia was duly organized. Brother Israel Wood Powell, M. D., Provincial Grand Master of Scotland, was elected the first Grand Master.

BRITISH EAST AFRICA

or KENYA COLONY. The Grand Lodges of England and Scotland have each chartered a Lodge in this district at Nairobi.

BRITISH GUIANA

A country in South America. The Grand Lodge of Holland warranted Lodge Saint Juan de la Ré-Union in 1771 at Georgetown. It did not however survive very long. Lodges were also chartered by the Grand Lodges of New York, England, Scotland, etc. The Grand Lodge of Scotland has two Lodges at Georgetown.

BRITISH HONDURAS

Known also as Belize, a British colony in Central America. Amity Lodge, No. 309, was chartered at St. George’s Quay by the Grand Lodge of England, but as it did not succeed it was dropped from the Register in 1813. In 1820 British Constitution Lodge was warranted by the United Grand Lodge of England at Honduras Bay but, with that of another Lodge chartered in 1831, its name was omitted from the Register on June 4, 1862.

BRITISH LODGE

English Red Apron Lodge, now No. 8, founded 1722, having Centenary Warrant but no special jewel. Officers permitted golden or gilt jewels, same as Lodge of Antiquity. This honor conferred when Lord Cranstoun became Grand Master, 1745. He was a member of the British Lodge and the jewels used by its Master and Wardens were those worn by the Grand Master and the Grand Wardens and these jewels were gilded before they were returned to the owners, who were permitted to continue their use of them in gold or gilded metal.

BROACHED THURNEL

In the lectures of the early part of the eighteenth century the Immovable Jewels of the Lodge are said to be “the Tarsel Board, Rough Asmar, and Broached Thurnel”; and in describing their uses it is taught that “the Rough Ashlar is for the Fellow Crafts to try their jewels on, and the Broached Thurnel for the Entered Apprentices to learn to work upon.”

Much difficulty has been met with in discovering what the Broached Thurnel really was. Doctor Oliver, most probably deceived by the use to which it was assigned, says in his Dictionary of Symbolic Masonry that it was subsequently called the ‘ Rough Asmar. This is evidently incorrect, because a distinction is made in the original lecture between it and the Rough Asmar, the former being for the Apprentices and the latter for the Fellow Crafts. Krause (Kunsturkenden,1, 73), has translated it by Drehbank, which means a turning-lathe, an implement not used by Operative Freemasons. Now what is the real meaning of the word? If we inspect an old tracing board of the Apprentice’s Degree of the date when the Broached Thurnel was in use, we shall find depicted on it three symbols, two of which will at once be recognized as the Tarsel, or Trestle Board, and the Rough Ashlar, just as we have them at the present day; while the third symbol will be that depicted in the margin, namely, a cubical stone with a pyramidal apex.

This is the Broached Thurnel. It is the symbol which is still to be found, with precisely the same form, in all French tracing boards, under the name of the pierre cubique, or cubical stone, and which has been replaced in English and American tracing boards and rituals by the Perfect Ashlar.

For the derivation of the words, we must go to old and now almost obsolete terms of architecture. On inspection, it will at once be seen that the Broached Thurnel has the form of a little square turret with a spire springing from it. Now, broach, or broche, says Parker in the Glossary of Terms in Architecture (page 97), is “an old English term for a spire, still in use in some parts of the country, as in Leicestershire, where it is said to denote a spire springing from the tower without any intervening parapet. Thurnel is from the old French tournelle, a turret or little tower.

The Broached Thurnel, then, was the Spired Turret. lt was a model on which apprentices might learn the principles of their art, because it presented to them, in its various outlines, the forms of the square and the triangle, the cube and the pyramid.”

Brother Hawkins had somewhat different conclusions about the matter and added the following comments:

In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum (xii, 205), Brother G. W. Speth quotes from the Imperial Dictionary: “Broach, in Scotland, a term among masons, signifying to rough hew. Broached Work, in Scotland, a term among masons, signifying work or stones that are rough-hewn, and thus distinguished from Ashlar or polished work. Broaching-Thurmal, Thurmer, Turner, names given to the chisels by which broached work is executed.”

And therefore Brother Speth suggests that the Broached Thurnel was really a chisel for the Entered Apprentices to learn to work with. We find that the new English Dictionary explains Broached as a term used “of stone; chiselled with a broach,” or narrow-pointed chisel used by Freemasons; but Brother Hawkins points out that this still leaves it uncertain what a “Thurnel” is.

Brother Clegg has had the advantage of actually working with broaching tools and therefore ought to know something about broached work. The word broach in the industries is usually applied to the operation of shaping or forming some part by special tools made to produce some particular shape or design. A triangular hole in a piece of metal or any other material can for example be furnished to a considerable degree of accuracy by simply forcing the cutting tool through it as a final operation. This is called broaching and the tools for the purpose are known as broaches. A tool that is used to smooth out, a small opening by being rotated within it is often called a broach and, as will be seen, the idea is that the broach is used to form a special shape. These special shapes therefore are known as work which is broached and this agrees very closely with the understanding that underlies each of the comments made above.

The exact meaning of Thurnel or Thurmal is not any too clear but has evidently been applied to the instrument as well as the product of its work. Brother Charles E. Funk of the Editorial Department of the Funk & Wagnalls New Standard Dictionary of the English Language has very kindly read the above article and favors us with the following comments:

I have gone through fifteen or more dictionaries from 1643 up to Murray’s New English Dictionary, including several dialectical dictionaries and one on archaisms. None of them record any such spelling as thurnel, thurmal, nor thurmer.

Broach or broche, broch, broache, broych, brooch, brotch – are not so obscure. Five centuries and more of usage still find the early senses preserved. But even so, ambiguity is not avoided in attempting to determine the expression broached thurnel, for broach may refer either (1) to the mason’s tool, a narrow pointed chisel by which he furrowed the surface of stone, as in the quotation of 1703, “to broych or broach, as Masons an Atchler or ashlar when with the small point of their ax (?) they make it full of little pits or small holes;” also that of 1544, ” In hewinge, brochinge, and scaplyn of stone for the chapell ;” or (2) to the name of the spire itself, a current form in England today which dates from 1501, ” For trassying & makyn moldes to the brooch.”

With this second and still current usage of broach, then, and assuming that thumel is a variant spelling of tournelle, as it might well have been, we can derive a thoroughly satisfactory explanation of the expression and one which also agrees with the old illustrations, a spired turret. This view may be further supported while we recall the old German form Thurm or tower.

Murray lends further support to this view in his record of the variants of tournelle, which appeared variously from 1400 to the middle of the seventeenth century as tornel, turnelle, tornelle, toumel, tornil, and tournell.

A1l of this may lend weight to the theory as given by Mackey. But if this theory is accepted, the mystery is still unsolved, for by which logic would the symbol of Fellow Craft be the Rough Ashlar and that of the Apprentice be such a highly finished work as the Spired Turrett One would expect a reversal of such symbolism at the least.

It seems, therefore, that the explanation as a spired turret is inappropriate—one would not expect an apprentice ” to learn to work upon” such a structure. We are forced, then, to consider the first definition of broach and to do some more or less etymological guesswork with thurnel, which I am offering as a possible clue-I can not locate the missing link to make it conclusive, for we have no reference books covering the subject of stone-dressing tools on our shelves. Dialectically th was occasionally substituted for f.

We have such instances as thane for fane, thetch for fetch, and thurrow for furraw, and others. I would expect, therefore, to find some dressing tool, no longer employed, perhaps, or now under another name, which was called a furnel, fournel, fornel, or even firnel, perhaps with an m in place of the n. It may be that the firming-chisel is the present type. This tool would be a tapered handtool, set in a flat head to receive blows from a hammer, and would be used for rough dressing. Possibly it might be the former which was thus described in 1688:

” The second is termed a Former, it is a Chissel used before the Paring Chissel in all works. The Clenser, or Former, is a broad ended Iron Plate, or Old-Cold? Chessel with a broad bottom, set in an Handle; with which Tool they smooth and make even the Stone after it is cut into that form and Order, as the Work-man will have it.”

Again it may have been a development from the formal referred to by Bossewell in 1572: ” A Sledge or a Hammer, of some called a formal,” ( fore-mall, later called a forehammer). A broached formal would then have been a tool, perhaps a hammer head, shaped something like the blacksmith’s set hammer, with one broad flat face, the other tapering to a point. The pointed end would be used for broaching, and the flat end for hammer finishing. Note that both these descriptions might well refer to the ax in the quotation of 1703.

And further, although the members of the family give Fourneaux or Fournivalle as the original form of the name. I offer the conjecture that the name Furnald, Fernald may have had its original from the occupational term furnel (thurnel).

In the latter part of Brother Funk’s consideration of this matter he had in mind the name of James C.Femald, who was editorially connected with his company and a distinguished author.

BROKEN COLUMN

Among the Hebrews, columns, or pillars, were used metaphorically to signify princes or nobles, as if they were the pillars of a state. Thus (in Psalm xi, 3), the passage, reading in our translation, “If the foundations be destroyed what can the righteous do?” is, in the original, “when the columns are overthrown,” that is, when the firm supporters of what is right and good have perished.
So the passage in Isaiah (xix, 10), should read: “her (Egypt’s) columns are broken down,” that is, the nobles of her state.

In Freemasonry, the broken column is, as Master Freemasons well know, the emblem of the fall of one of the chief supporters of the Craft. The use of the column or pillars as a monument erected over a tomb was a very ancient custom, and was a very significant symbol of the character and spirit of the person interred. It is accredited to Jeremy L. Cross that he first introduced the Broken Column into the ceremonies, but this may not be true (see Monument).

BROMWELL, HENRY P. H.

Born at Baltimore, Maryland, August, 1823, died at Denver, Colorado, January 9, 1903. Admitted to the bar in Vandalia, Illinois, 1853. Representative to Congress from 1865 to 1869 from that State-went to Colorado in 1870 and in 1879 elected a member of the Legislature and in 1881 appointed Commissioner to revise the 1aws of the State.

Made a Freemason at Vandalia in 1854 and chosen Grand Master in 1864. Served as Grand Orator of the Grand Lodge of Colorado in 1874, and was elected Honorary Grand Master of that Body in 1889 in consideration of his distinguished services to the Craft. He was the originator of what has been styled a new branch of Freemasonry, known as the Free and Accepted Architects, the object of which was to restore and preserve the lost work of the ancient Craft. At one time there were five Lodges of Architects in the United States, and also a Grand Lodge.

The instruction embodied in the Degrees was in no sense an innovation, but designed to impart to students of the Craft a knowledge of Masonic symbolism not otherwise obtainable. His famous book entitled Restorations of Masonic Geometry and Symbol, being a dissertation on the lost knowledge of the Lodge, was begun in 1884 and on it he worked for sixteen hours a day for six years and two months.

One Chapter, devoted to the floors of the three Lodges, occupied two years and two months in its preparation, while the book was read and re-read fourteen times for correction and revision.

BROTHER

The term which Freemasons apply to each other. Freemasons are Brethren, not only by common participation of the human nature, but as professing the same faith; as being jointly engaged in the same labors, and as being united by a mutual covenant or tie, whence they are also emphatically called Brethren of the Mystic Tie (see Companion and Mystic Tie).

BROTHERHOOD

When our Savior designated his disciples as his Brethren, he implied that there was a close bond of union existing between them, which idea was subsequently carried out by Saint Peter in his direction to “Love the Brotherhood.”

Hence the early Christians designated themselves as a brotherhood, a relationship unknown to the Gentile religions; and the ecclesiastica1 and other confraternities of the Middle Ages assumed the same title to designate any association of men engaged in the same common object, governed by the same rules, and united by an identical interest. The association or Fraternity of Freemasons is in this sense called a brotherhood.

BROTHERING

Admission to the Craft. Cunningham’s Diary, the diary and general expenditure book of William Cunningham of Craigends, edited by the Reverend James Dodd, D.D., 1887, and published by the Scottish Historical Society., has the following entries:

June 17, 1676.
To my mai1 to pay his trave1ing. . . . . . . . . 01 2 0
June 26, 1677.
To Andrew Greg his servant in part of
his fee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . … . . . . . . 02 0 0
To him to pay his Brothering with. . . . . . . . 01 4 0

Glossary at end of book explains that Brothering means admission to the Craft Fellowship.

BROTHERLY KISS

See Kiss, Fraternal

BROTHERLY LOVE

At a very early period in the course of his initiation, a candidate for the mysteries of Freemasonry is informed that the great principles of the Order are Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth. These virtues are illustrated, and their practice recommended to the aspirant, at every step of his progress; and the instruction, though continually varied in its mode, is so constantly repeated, as infallibly to impress upon his mind their absolute necessity in the constitution of a good Freemason. Brotherly Love might very well be supposed to be an ingredient in the organization of a society so peculiarly constituted as that of Freemasonry. But the Brotherly Love which we inculcate is not a mere abstraction, nor is its character left to any general and careless understanding of the candidate, who might be disposed to give much or little of it to his Brethren, according to the peculiar constitution of his own mind, or the extent of his own generous or selfish feelings. It is, on the contrary, closely defined; its object plainly denoted; and the very mode and manner of its practice detailed in words, and illustrated by symbols, so as to give neither cause for error nor apology for indifference.

Every Freemason is acquainted with the Five Points of Fellowship-he knows their symbolic meaning-he can never forget the interesting incidents that accompanied their explanation; and while he has this knowledge, and retains this remembrance, he can be at no loss to understand what are his duties, and what must be his conduct, in relation to the principle of Brotherly Love (see Points of Fellowship).

BROTHERS OF THE BRIDGE

See Bridge Builders of the Middle Ages

BROTHERS OF THE ROSY CROSS

See Rosicrucianism

BROWN, DR. JOHN

See Latin Lodge

BROWNE, JOHN

In 1798, John Browne published, in London, a work entitled The Master Key through all the Degrees of a Freemason’s Lodge, to which is added, Eullogiums and Illustrations upon Freemasonry. In 1802, he published a second edition under the title of Browne’s Masonic Master Key through the three degrees, by way of polyglot. Under the sanction of the Craft in general, containing the exact mode of working, initiation, passing and raising to the sublime Degree of a Master. Also, the several duties of the Master, officers, and Brethren while in the Lodge, with every requisite to render the accomplished Mason an explanation of all the hieroglyphics.

The whole interspersed with illustrations on Theology, Astronomy, Architecture, Arts, Sciences, many of which are by the editor. Browne had been, he says, the Past Master of six Lodges, and wrote his work not as an offensive exposition, but as a means of giving Freemasons a knowledge of the ritual. It is considered to be a very complete representation of the monitorial Prestonian lectures, and as such was incorporated by Krause in his Drei altesten Kunsturkuenden.

The work by Browne is printed in a very complicated cipher, the key to which, and without which the book is wholly unintelligible, was, by way of caution, delivered only personally and to none but those who had reached the Third Degree. The explanation of this “mystical key,” as Browne calls it, is as follows:

The word Browne supplies the vowels, thus:
br o w n e.
a e i o u y

These six vowels in turn represent six letters, thus:
a e i o u y.
k c o l n u

Initial capitals are of no value, and supernumerary letters are often inserted. The words are kept separate, but the letters of one word are often divided between two or three. Much therefore is left to the shrewdness of the decipherer. The initial sentence of the work may be adduced as a specimen: Ubs Rplrbsrt wbss ostm ronwprn Pongth Mrlwdgr, which is thus deciphered: Please to assist me in opening the Lodge. The work is now exceedingly rare.

BRU

See Vielle Bru, Rite of

BRUCE

See Robert I, also Royal Order of Scotland.

BRUCE, ROBERT

The introduction of Freemasonry into Scotland has been attributed by some writers to Robert, King of Scotland, commonly called Robert Bruce, who is said to have established in 1314 the Order of Herodom, for the reception of those Knights Templar who had taken refuge in his dominions from the persecutions of the Pope and the King of France. Thory (Acta Latomorum,1, 6), copies the following from a manuscript in the library of the Mother Lodge of the Philosophical Rite:

“Robert Bruce, King of Scotland, under the name of Robert the First, created, on the 24th June, 1314, after the battle of Bannockburn, the Order of Saint Andrew of the Thistle, to which has been since united that of Herodom (H-D-M) for the sake of the Scotch Masons, who composed a part of the thirty thousand men with whom he had conquered an army of a hundred thousand Englishmen. He reserved, in perpetuity, to himself and his successors, the title of Grand Master. He founded the Royal Grand Lodge of the Order of H-D-M at Kilwinning, and died, full of glory and honors, the 9th of July, 1329.”

Doctor Oliver (Landmarks,11, 13), referring to the abolition of the Templar Order in England, when the Knights were compelled to enter the Preceptories of the Knights of Saint John, as dependents, says:

“In Scotland, Edward, who had overrun the country at the time, endeavored to pursue the same course; but, on summoning the Knights to appear, only two, Wa1ter de Clifton, the Grand Preceptor, and another, came forward. On their examination, they confessed that all the rest had fled; and as Bruce was advancing with his army to meet Edward, nothing further was done.

The Templars, being debarred from taking refuge either in England or Ireland, had no alterative but to join Bruce, and give their active support to his cause. Thus, after the battle of Bannockburn, in 1314, Bruce granted a charter of lands to Walter de Clifton, as Grand Master of the Templars, for the assistance which they rendered on that occasion. Hence the Royal Order of H-R-D-M was frequently practiced under the name of Templary.”

Lawrie, or the author of Lawrie’s History of Freemasonry, who is excellent authority for Scottish Freemasonry, does not appear, however, to give any credit to the narrative. Whatever Bruce may have done for the advanced Degrees, there is no doubt that Ancient Craft Freemasonry was introduced into Scotland at an earlier period. But it cannot be denied that Bruce was one of the patrons and encouragers of Scottish Freemasonry.

BUILDERS’ RITES AND CEREMONIES

These have been summarized in two lectures published at Margate, England, 1894, by Brother George IV. Speth on October 30, and November 13, 1893, in discussing the Folklore of Freemasonry. Brother Speth says that for those of his Brethren who would take the trouble to read between the lines, a matter by no means difficult, he ventures to hope that the facts may not prove dumb guides, but direct their thoughts to the true significance of our ceremonial customs, and confirm in their minds the certainty of the marvelous antiquity, in its essence, although perhaps not in its exact outward form, of the solemn climax of our beloved ritual. Many of us have seen a foundation-stone laid, and more have read of the proceedings. When conducted by Freemasons the ceremony includes much beautiful symbolism, such as trying and pronouncing the stone well laid, pouring wine and on and corn over it, and other similar rites: but in almost all cases, whether the ancient Craft be concerned in the operation or not, there are placed in a cavity beneath the stone several objects, such as a list of contributors to the funds, a copy of the newspaper of the day, and above all, one or more coins of the realm. Should you ask the reason for this deposit, you will probably hear that these objects were placed there for a future witness and reference.

Although this alleged motive is apparently reasonable, yet it is obviously absurd for surely the hope of all concerned is that the foundation-stone never would be removed and that the witness would for ever remain dumb.

Grimm puts it in this way. ” It was often though necessary to immure live animals and even men in the foundation on which the structure was to be raised, as if they were a sacrifice offered to the earth, who had to bear the load upon her: by this inhuman rite they hoped to secure immovable stability or other advantages.” (See Teutonic Mythology, 1884, translated, Stalleybrass, 1883 page l141.) Baring-Gould says, “When the primeval savage began to build he considered himself engaged on a serious undertaking. He was disturbing the face of Mother Earth, he was securing to himself in permanency of portion of that surface which had been given by her to all her children in common. Partly with the notion of offering a propitiatory sacrifice to the Earth, and partly also with the idea of securing to himself for ever a portion of son by some sacramental act, the old pagan laid the foundation of his house and fortress in blood.” (See On Foundations, Murray’s Magazine, l887)

In Bomeo, among the Mnanau Dyaks, at the erection of a house, a deep hole was dug to receive the first post, which was then suspended over it ; a slave girl was placed in the excavation; at a signal the lashings were cut, and the enormous timber descended, crushing the girl to death (see E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture, 1871, page 96).

The following accounts would show how widespread was this sacrificial rite. It was, in fact, universal: a rite practiced apparently by all men at all times in all places. King Dako bunt his palace on the body of Danh. The name of his chief town, Dahomey, means on the body of Danh (see F. Liebrecht, Zur Folkskunde, 1879, page 287).

In Polynesia, the central pillar of one of the temples at Maeva was planted on the body of a human victim (see G. L. Gomme, Folklore Relics of Early Vnlage Life, 1883, page 27).

A seventeenth century account of Japan mentions the belief there that a wall laid upon the body of a willing human victim would be secure from accident: accordingly when a great wall was to be bunt, some wretched slave would offer himself as a foundation, lying down in the trench to be crushed by the heavy stones lowered upon him (see Tyler, Primitive Culture, 1871, page 87).

Formerly in Siam, when a new city gate was being erected, it was customary for a number of officers to lie in wait and seize the first four or eight persons who happened to pass by, and who were then buried alive under the gate posts to serve as guardian angels (see Folk-lore Relics, page 28).

In the year 1876, the old church at Brownsover, about two miles from Rugby, England, was restored: The earlier parts of the building were of Norman, the later of early 13th century architecture. It was found necessary to lower the foundations of the north and south walls of the church, and in doing so, two skeletons were discovered, one under each wall, about one foot below the original foundations, exactly opposite each other and about six feet from the chancel wall which crosses the north and south walls at right angles. Each skeleton was covered with an oak slab about six feet in length by ten inches wide and two inches thick of the color of bog-oak. These pieces of plank had evidently been used as carpenters’ benches, from the fact that each of them had four mortice holes cut in such a form as to throw the legs outwards, and from the cuts made in them by edged tools. The skeletons were found in a space cut out of the solid clay which had not been moved on either side, just large enough to take the bodies placed in them. The skeletons were seen in situ: they could not have been placed there after the original walls were bunt (see Antiquary iii, page 93).

Some substitutions are curious. Animals are to be met with of many kinds. In Denmark a lamb used to be bunt in under the altar, that the church might stand.

Even under other houses swine and fowls are buried alive. (See Grimm page 1142.) The lamb was of course very appropriate in a Christian Church, as an allusion to ” the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.”

In the Book of Revelation this epithet is only a metaphor, yet Brother Speth says it would scarcely have been understood unless the rite we are treating of had been known to the Jews. That it was known, the curse pronounced by Joshua upon the man who should adventure to rebuild Jericho, proves to demonstration. “And Joshua adjured them at that time, saying, Cursed be the man before the Lord, that riseth up and buildeth this city of Jericho ; he shall lay the foundation thereof in his first-born, and in his youngest son shall he set up the gates thereof,” (See Joshua vi, 26, also First Kings xvi, 34.)

The population of India believe at the present day that to give stability to new construction, a human being should be sacrificed and buried in the foundations (see Folk-lore Journal, 1, page 23). All the great engineering works are believed by the common people to be protected against the angry gods of winds and rivers by animal and human sacrifices being performed under the direction of English officers at the beginning or conclusion of the undertaking (see Folk-lore Journal 1, page 92). A correspondent of the Times, dating from Calcutta, August 1, 1880, writes: “A murmur has got abroad and is firmly believed by the lower classes of the natives, that the government is about to sacrifice a number of human beings in order to ensure the safety of the new harbor works, and has ordered the police to seize victims in the streets. So thoroughly is the idea implanted, that people are afraid to venture out after nightfall.

There was a similar scare in Calcutta some seven or eight years ago, when the Hooghly bridge was being constructed. The natives then got hold of the idea that Mother Ganges, indignant at being bridged, had at last consented to submit to the insult on the condition that each pier of the structure was founded on a layer of children’s heads”
(see Folk-lore Record iii, page 283).

But we need not go to India for such accusations. In Nature, under date June 15, 1871, we find: ” It is not many years since the present Lord Leigh was accused of having built an obnoxious person-one account, if we remember right, said eight obnoxious persons-into the foundation of a bridge at Stoneleigh.”

In Scotland there is a current belief that the Picts, to whom local legend attributes building of prehistoric antiquity, bathed their foundation stones with blood (see Folk-lore Relics, page 29). Brother Speth heard people in Kent, of certainly not the least educated classes, assert that both the strength and the peculiar pink tinge which may sometimes be detected in Roman cement, is owing to the alleged practice of the Romans mixing their cement with blood. Did Shakespeare speak only metaphorically, or was he aware of the custom when he makes Clarence say,

I will not ruinate my father’s house,
Who gave his blood to lime the stones together,
And set up Lancaster.
Henry vi, part iii, act v, scene 1.

Note the words of King John as given by Shakespeare,
There is no sure foundation set in blood,
No certain life achieved by others’ death.
King John iv, 2.

Brother Speth gives an experience of the Rev. Baring-Gould. ” It is said in Yorkshire,” he writes, ” that the first child baptized in a new font is sure to die—a reminiscence of the sacrifice which was used at the consecration of every dwelling and temple in heathen times, and of the pig or sheep killed and laid at the foundation of churches. When I was incumbent at Dalton a new church was built. A blacksmith in the village had seven daughters, after which a son was born, and he came to me a few days before the consecration of the new church to ask me to baptize his boy in the old temporary church and font. ‘Why, Joseph,’ said I, ‘if you will only wait till Thursday the boy can be baptized in the new font on the opening of the new church.’ ‘Thank you, Sir,’ said the blacksmith, with a wriggle,’but you see it’s a lad, and we should be sorry if he were to deem, if he’d been a lass instead, why then you were welcome, for ‘twouldn’t ha’ mattered a ha’penny. Lasses are ower mony and lads ower few wi’ us’.”

Now, it is surely unnecessary, continues Brother Speth, to explain why we bury coins of the real under orum foundation stones. ”Our forefathers, ages ago, buried a living human sacrifice in the same place to ensure the stability of the structure: their sons substituted an animal: their sons again a mere effigy or other symbol: and we, their children, still immure a substitute, coins bearing the effigy, impressed upon the noblest of metals, the pure red gold, of the one person to whom we all are most loyal, and whom we all most love, our gracious Queen. I do not assert that one in a hundred is conscious of what he is doing: if you ask him, he will give some different reason: but the fact remains that unconsciously, we are following the customs of our fathers, and symbolically providing a soul for the structure. ‘Men continue to do what their fathers did before them, though the reasons on which their fathers acted have been long forgotten.’

A ship could not be launched in the olden times without .a human sacrifice: the neck of the victim was broken across the prow, and his blood besprinkled the sides, while his soul entered the new home provided for it to ensure its safety amid storm and tempest: to-day we symbolize unconsciously the same ceremony, but we content ourselves with a bottle of the good red wine, slung from the dainty fingers of English womanhood.”

Brother Speth gives numerous facts from various parts of the world and of widely separated times.

Perhaps as significant as any and certainly as interesting are the particulars brought to his attention by Brother William Simpson and dealing with Old Testament days. Referring to Assyrian foundation stones in the reign of Sennacherib who was on the throne 705-681 B.C., we have the roya1 message from Records of the Past (new series, volume vi, page 101), the words “my inscription” relating in Brother Simpson’s note to the foundation stone, the 1atter probably being a brick or clay cylinder:

I bunt that palace from foundation to roof
and finished it. My inscription
I brought into it. For future days,
whoever-among the kings, my successors, whom
. ASSUR and ISTAR
Shall call to the rule over the land and the people–
the prince may he, if this palace
becomes old and mined, who builds it anew
May he preserve my inscription,
anoint it with oil, offer sacrifices, return it to its place ;
then will Assur and Istar hear his prayer.

The same work (Records of the Past, new series, volume v, page 171) contains an inscription of Cyrus the Persian King mentioning his discovery of the foundation stone of the Assyrian Assurbanipal, 668-626 B.C., usually identified with the Asnapper of Ezra iv, 10. Here we find a foundation stone instead of the “inscription” and a significant ceremony is described that agrees with that of Sennacherib’s and is truly very like the modern Masonic Rite when dedicating hall or temple or laying a corner-stone:

. . . . the foundation-stone of Assur-bani-pal King of Assyria, who had discovered the foundation stone of Shalmaneser son of Assur-natsir-pal, I laid its foundation and made firm its bricks. With beer, wine, on (and) honey.

A simnar announcement by Cyrus is also given on page 173 of the above work :
. . . . the inscription containing the name of Assan-bani-pal I discovered anddid not change ; with oil I annointed (it) ; sheep I sacrificed ; with my own inscription I placed (it) and restored (it) to its place.

Foundation sacrifices and the substitution of various kinds used for them are considered freely by several authorities and there is a bibliography. of them to be found in Burdick’s Foundation Rites, 1901. We may note that in folklore customs persist and explanations change or as Sir J. G. Frazer (Golden Bough, 1890, ii, page 62) says “Myth changes while custom remains constant; men continue to do what their fathers did before them, though the reasons on which their fathers acted have long been forgotten.” That so many legends contain allusions to foundation sacrifices is ample proof that such existed. Brother Speth says further “Had we never found one single instance of the rite actually in practice, we might still have inferred it with absolute certainty from the legends, although these do not always give us the true motive.”

When it may have become unlawful or otherwise impracticable to bury a body, then an image, a symbol of the living or the dead, was laid in the walls or under them. The figure of Christ crucified has been found built into an old church wall. Representations of children, candles-the flame being a symbol of life even as a reversed torch is a type of death, empty coffins, bones of men and animals, and so on, have been discovered in or under the masonry when taking down important structures. Freemasons will understand the significance of these old customs. Every laying of a corner-stone with Masonic ceremonies is a reminder of them, and every completed initiation a confirmation.

The subject may be studied further in Jew and Human Sacrifice, Herman L. Strack, English translation of eighth edition, page 138, with bibliographical notes on page 31; Blood Covenant, H. Clay Trumbull, and particularly pages 45-57 of his other book the Threshold Covenant, the first of these works discussing the origin of sacrifice and the significance of transferred or proffered blood or life, and the second treating of the beginning of religious rites and their gradual development ; Foundation Rites, Louis Dayton Burdick ; Bible Sidelights, Dr. R. A. Stewart Macalister, Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund; James Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible, page 368, and in Doctor Mackey’s revised History of Freemasonry, page 1072.

BUL

The primitive designation of the month Marchesvan (see Zif). Doctor Oliver says in his Landmarks (11, 551), that this is one of the names of God among the ancients. It is also said to be an Assyrian word signifying Lord or Powerful.

BULL, OLE BORNEMANN

Famous Norwegian violinist. Born at Bergen, February 5, 1810, and died near there on August 17, 1880. After brilliant concert tours in Europe, was in the United States, 1843-5, and again, 1852-7. James Herring, formerly Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of New York, gave an address at the celebration of the centennial anniversary of Saint John’s Lodge No. 1, New York, December 7, 1857, showing that Ole Bull was a Freemason. He gave his farewell concert in New York, October 30, 1845, for Masonic charitable purposes, the Grand Lodge Widows’ and Orphans’ Fund, which netted the Craft $1,427.55.

BULL, PAPAL

An edict or proclamation issued from the Apostolic Chancery, with the seal and signature of the Pope, written in Gothic letters and upon coarse parchment. This derives its name from the leaden seal which is attached to it by a cord of hemp or silk, and which in medieval Latin is called bulla. Several of these Bu1ls have from time to time been aimed against Freemasonry and other secret societies, subjecting them to the heaviest ecclesiastical punishments, even to the greater excommunication. According to these Bulls, a Freemason is by reason of that fact excommunicated by continuing his membership in the Society, and is thus deprived of all spiritual privileges while living, and the rites of burial when dead.

The several important Bulls which have been issued by the Popes of Rome intended to affect the Fraternity of Freemasons are as follows: the Bull In Eminenti of Clement XII, dated 24th of April, 1738. This Bull was confirmed and renewed by that beginning Providas, of Benedict XIV, 18th of May, 1751; then followed the edict of Pius VII, 13th of September, 1821; the apostolic edict Quo Graviora of Leo XII, 13th of March, 1825 ; that of Pius VIII, 21st of May, 1829 ; that of Gregory XVI, 15th of August, 1832; Pius IX in 1846 and 1865; and finally that of Leo XIII, who ascended to the papacy in 1878, and issued his Bull, or encyclical letter, Humanum Genus, on April 20, 1884. Whatever may have been the severity of the Bulls issued by the predecessors of Leo XIII, he with great clearness ratifies and confirms them all in the following language: “Therefore, whatsoever the popes our predecessors have decreed to hinder the designs and attempts of the sect of Freemasons ; whatsoever they have ordained to deter or recall persons from societies of this kind, each and all do we ratify and conform by our Apostolic authority,” at the same time acknowledging that this “society of men are most widely spread and firmly established.”

This letter of the Romlan hierarchy thus commences : “The human race, after its most miserable defection, through the wiles of the devil, from its Creator, God, the giver of celestial gifts, has divided into two different and opposite factions, of which one fights ever for truth and virtue, the other for their opposites.

One is the kingdom of God on earth . . , the other is the kingdom of Satan.”

That, “by accepting any that present themselves, no matter of what religion, they (the Freemasons) gain their purpose of urging that great error of the present day, viz., that questions of religion ought to be left undetermined, and that there should be no distinction made between varieties. And this policy aims at the destruction of all religions, especially at that of the Catholic religion, which, since it is the only true one, cannot be reduced to equality with the rest without the greatest injury.”

“But, in truth, the sect grants great license to its initiates, allowing them to defend either position, that there is a God, or that there is no God.”

Thus might we quote continuous passages, which need only to be stated to proclaim their falsity, and yet there are those who hold to the doctrine of the infallibility of the Pope.

BRÜN, ABRAHAM VAN

A wealthy Freemason of Hamburg, who died at an advanced age in 1748. For many years he had been the soul of the Société des ancients Rose-Croix in Germany, which soon after his death was dissolved. This is on the authority of Thory (Ada Latomorum ii, 295).

BRUNSWICK, CONGRESS OF

Convoked in 1775, by Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick. Its object was to effect a fusion of the various Rites; but it terminated its labors, after a session of six weeks, without success.

BRUNSWICK, FREDERICK AUGUSTUS, PRINCE OF

Born 1740, second son of Duke Charles I. In 1769 he affiliated with a Chapter of the Strict Observance; declared National Grand Master of Prussia, 1772, serving until 1799. Rendered distinguished service in the Seven Years’ War, and said to have written much on Rosicrucianism, alchemy and magic.

BRUNSWICK, FERDINAND, DUKE OF BRUNSWICK-WOLFENBUETTEL

Born 1721 and died July 3, 1792. Served in several wars with Frederick the Great, resigning his military command in 1766 and devoting himself to Freemasonry.

Initiated in 1740 in the Lodge Three Globes at Berlin ; in 1743 received his Master’s Degree at Breslau; became Protector of the Lodge Saint Charles, Brunswick, in 1764; and English Past Grand Master of Brunswick in 1770; Protector of Von Hund’s Strict Observance in 177; declared Grand Master of the Scottish Lodges in 1772. In 1782 the Duke of Brunswick was present at the Convent at Wnhelmsbad when the Templar system is supposed to have been given up and when there he was declared General Grand Master of the assembled Lodges. Patronized the Nluminati and said to have been General Obermeister (Overseer) of the Asiatic Brethren. An eminent German Craftsman, presiding at the Saint John’s Festival at Brunswick in 1792, when he declared that he had been a Freemason fifty years

BRUNSWICK, MAXIMNIAN J. L., PRINCE OF

Admitted in the Saint Charles Lodge, Brunswick, Germany, in 1770, becoming its Protector. Youngest son of Duke Charles I, educated at the Collegium Carolinum and went to Italy, 1775, with the German literary Freemason, Lessing. Served Frederick the Great with military honors and lost his life trying to save a drowning man in the River Oder.

BRUNSWICK, WILLIAM A, PRINCE OF

Third son of Duke Charles I of Brunswick, Germany, known to have joined the Lodge Saint Charles in 1769. Died in 1770.

BRYAN, WILLIAM JENNINGS

American statesman and orator, born March 19, 1860; died July 26, 1925. Three times nominated for presidency of the United States, 1896, 1900, and 1908, and twice defeated by Brother McKinley, and lastly by Brother Taft. In Spanish-American War, 1898, he became Colonel of the Third Regiment, Nebraska Volunteer Infantry. Secretary of State, 1913. He was a member of Lincoln Lodge No. 19, Lincoln, Nebraska (see New Age, March, 1925).

BUCHANAN MANUSCRIPT

This parchment roll—one of the “Old Charges”-is so named because it was presented to the Grand Lodge of England in 1880 by Mr. George Buchanan, of Whitby, by whom it was found amongst the papers of a partner of his father’s. It is considered to be of the latter part of the seventeenth century-say from 1660 to 1680. This manuscript was first published at length in Gould’s History of Freemasonry (volume 1, page 93), being adopted as an example of the ordinary class of text, and since then has been reproduced in facsimne by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of London in volume iv of the Masonic reprints published by this scholarly body.

BUCKINGHAM, GEORGE VALIERS, DUKE OF

Poet, playwright, statesman, described by Dryden as the “epitome of mankind,” but really a spendthrift of time. Doctor Anderson says he was Grand Master of England in 1674. Born January 30, 1628, and died April16, 1687.

BUDDHISM

The religion of the disciples of Buddha. It prevails over a great extent of Asia, and is estimated to be equally popular with any other form of faith among mankind. Its founder, Buddha-a word which seems to be an appellative, as it signifies the enlightened-lived about five hundred years before the Christian era, and established his religion as a reformation of Brahmanism.

The moral code of Buddhism is excellent, surpassing that of any other heathen religion. But its theology is not so free from objection. Max Müller admits that there is not a. single passage in the Buddhiat canon of scripture which presupposes the belief in a personal God or a Creator, and hence he concludes that the teaching of Buddha was pure atheism.

Yet Upham (Histom and Doctrine of Buddhimn, page 2 ), thinks that, even if this be capable of proof, it also recognizes ”the operation of Faith called Damam, whereby much of the necessary process of conservation or government is infussed into the system.”

The doctrine of Nirvana, according to Burnouf, taught that absolute nothing or annihilation was the highest aim of virtue, and hence the belief in immortality was repudiated. Such, too, has been the general opinion of Oriental scholars; but Müller (science of Religion, page 141), adduces evidence, from the teachings of Buddha, to show that Nirvana may mean the extinction of many things—of selfishness, desire, and sin-without going so far as the extinction of subjective consciousness.

The sacred scripture of Buddhisin is the Tripitaka, literally, the Three Baskets. The first, or the Vinaya, comprises all that relates to moralityy ; the second, or the Sitras, contains the discourses of Buddha; and the third, or Abhidharma, includes all works on metaphysics and dogmatic phnosophy. The first and second Baskets also receive the general name of Dharma, or the Law. The principal seat of Buddhism is the island of Ceylon, but it has extended into China, Japan, and many: other countries of Asia (see Aranyaka, Aryan, Atthakatha, Mahabharata, Mahadeva, Mahak asyapa, Pitaka, Puranas, Ramayana, Sakti, Sastra, Sat B’hai, Shaster, Shesha, Sruti, Upanishad, Upadevas, Vedas, Vedanga, Zenana and Zennaar).

BUENOS AYRES

A Lodge was chartered in this city, and named the Southern Star, by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 1825. Others followed, but in 1846 in consequence of the unsettled state of affairs their labors were suspended. A revival occurred in 1852, when a Lodge named L’Ami des Naufragés was established in Buenos Ayres by the Grand Orient of France; and in 1853 the Grand Lodge of England erected a Lodge named Excelsior (followed in 1859 by the Teutonia, which worked in German and was erased in 1872), and in 1864 by the Star of the South. In 1856 there was an irregular Body working in the Ancient and the Accepted Scottish Rite, which claimed the prerogatives of a Grand Lodge, but it was never recognized, and soon ceased to exist. On September 13, 1858, a Supreme Council and Grand Orient was established by the Supreme Council of Uruguay.

In 1861 a treaty was concluded between the Grand Lodge of England and the Grand Orient of the Argentine Republic, which empowered the former to establish Lodges in La Plata and to constitute a District Grand Lodge therein, which had some Lodges under its rule, when many more acknowledged the authority of the “Supreme Council and Grand Orient of the Argentine Republic in Buenos Ayres,” which was formed in 1895 by combination of the Grand Orient and Supreme Council.

BUFFALO BILL

See Cody, Colonel William Frederick

BUH

A corruption, in the American Royal Arch, of the word Bel. Up to a comparatively recent period says Doctor Mackey, it was combined with another corruption, Lun, in the mutated form of Buh-Lun, under which disguise the words Bel and On were presented to the initiate.

BUHLE, JOHANN GOTTLIEB

Professor of Phnosophy in the University, of Güttingen, who, not being himself a Freemason, published, in 1804, a work entitled Ueber den Ursprung und die vornehmsten Schieksale des Ordens der Rosenkreuzer und Freimaurer, that is, On the Origin and the Principal Events of the Orders of Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry. This work, logical in its arguments, false in many of its statements, and confused in its arrangement, was attacked by Frederick Nicolai in a critical review of it in 1806, and is spoken of very slightingly even by De Quincey, himself no very warm admirer of the Masonic Institution, who published, in 1824, in the London Magazine (volume ix), a loose translation of it, “abstracted, re-arrenged, and improved,” under the title of Historicocritical Inquiry into the Origin of the Rosicrucians and the Freemasons. Buhle’s theory was that Freemasonry was invented in the year 1629, by John Valentine Andreä. Buhlu was born at Brunswick in 1753, became Professor of Phnosophy at Güttingen in 1787, and, having afterward taught in his native city, died there in 1821.

BUILDER

The chief architect of the Temple of Solomon is often called the Builder. But the word is also applied generallyy to the Craft; for every speculative Freemason is as much a builder as was his operative predecessor. An American writer, F. S. Wood, thus alludes to this symbolic idea: “Freemasons are called moral builders.

In their rituals, they declare that a more noble and glorious purpose than squaring stones and hewing timbers is theirs,- fitting immortal nature for that spiritual building not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.” And he adds, “The builder builds for a century; Freemasons for eternity.” In this sense, the Builder is the noblest title that can be bestowed upon a Freemason.

BUILDER, SMITTEN

See Smitten Builder

BUILDERS, CORPORATIONS OF

See Stone Masons o f the Middle Ages

BULLETIN

The name given by the Grand Orient of France to the monthly publication which contains the official record of its proceedings. A similar work has been issued by the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Rite for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States of America, and by several other Supreme Councils and Grand Orients.

BUNYAN, JOHN

The well-known author of the Pilgrim’s Progress. He lived in the seventeenth century, and was the most celebrated allegorical writer of England. His work entitled Solomon’s Temple Spiritualized will supply the student of Masonic symbolism with many valuable suggestions.

BURBANK, LUTHER

Famous horticulturist, born March 7, 1849; died April 11, 1926. Became a Freemason in Santa Rosa Lodge No. 57, in California, on August 13, 1921. His successful experiments with fruits and flowers gave him an international reputation (see New Age, March, 1925).

BURDENS, BEARERS OF

A class of workmen at the Temple mentioned in Second Chronicles (11. 18), and referred to by Doctor Anderson (Constitutions 1738, page i i), as the Ish Sabbal, which see.

BUREAU INTERNATIONAL DE RELATIONS MAÇONNIQUE

See International Bureau for Masonic affairs

BURI or BURE

The first god of Norse mythology. In accordance with the quaint cosmogony of the ancient religion of Germany or that of Scandinavia, it was believed that before the world came into existence there was a great void, on the north side of which was a cold and dark region, and on the south side one warm and luminous. In Niflheim was a well, or the “seething caldron,” out of which flowed twelve streams into the great void and formed a huge giant.

In Iceland the first great giant was called Ymir, by the Germans Tuisto (Tacitus, Germania, chapter 2), whose three grandchildren were regarded as the founders of three of the German races. Contemporary with Ymir, and from the great frost blocks of primeval chaos, was produced a man called Buri, who was wise, strong, and beautiful. His son married the daughter of another giant, and their issue were the three sons Odin, Wili, and We, who ruled as gods in heaven and earth. By some it has been earnestly believed that upon these myths and legends many symbols of Freemasonry were founded.

BURIAL

The right to be buried with the set ceremonies of the Order is one that, under certain restrictions, belongs to every Master Mason.

None of the ancient Constitutions contain any law upon this subject, nor can the exact time be now determined when funeral processions and a burial service were first admitted as regulations of the Order.

The first official notice, however, that we have of funeral processions is in November, 1754. A regu1ation was then adopted which prohibited any Freemason from attending a funeral or other procession clothed in any of the jewels or clothing of the Craft, except by dispensation of the Grand Master or his Deputy (see Constitutions, 1756, page 303).

There are no further regulations on this subject in any of the editions of the Book of Constitutions previous to the modern code which is now in force in the Grand Lodge of England. But Preston gives us the rules on this subject, which have now been adopted by general consent as the law of the Order, in the following words:

“No Mason can be interred with the formalities of the Order unless it be by his own special request communicated by the Master of the Lodge of which he died a member, foreigners and sojourners excepted; nor unless he has been advanced to the third degree of Masonry, from which restriction there can be no exception.

Fellow Crafts or Apprentices are not entitled to the funeral obsequies” (see Illustrations, 1792, page 118).

The only restrictions prescribed by Preston are, it will be perceived, that the deceased must have been a Master Mason, that he had himself made the request and that he was affiliated, which is implied by the expression that he must have made the request for burial to the Master of the Lodge of which he was a member.

The regulation of 1754, which requires a Dispensation from the Grand Master for a funeral procession, is not considered of force in the United States of America, where, accordingly, Freemasons have generally been permitted to bury their dead without the necessity of such Dispensation.

BURKE, EDMUND

Born January 12, 1729, new style, at Dublin, Ireland, and died July 8, 1797, in England. Famous statesman, writer and orator who championed the cause of the American Colonists on the floor of the English Parliament, April 19, 1774.

His father, a Protestant attorney, his mother a Roman Catholic Published in 1756 the satire A Vindication of Natural Society, then his Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas on the Sublime and Beautiful, translated into German and annotated by another Freemason, Lessing; a series of Hints on the Drama and an Abridgment of the History of England; and became interested in America and wrote an Account of the European Settlements. Brother George W. Baird (Builder, October, 1923) says that Burke was a member of Jerusalem Lodge No. 44, Clerkenwell, London. In Builder (July, 1923), Brother Arthur Heiron mentions Samuel Johnson, James Boswell, Sir William Forbes, Richard Savage, Alexander Pope, Richard Garriek, Jonathan Swift, close friends or contemporaries of Burke, as active and proven Freemasons. There is an impressive statue of Edmund Burke at Washington, District of Columbia (see also New Age, January, 1924).

BURNES, SIR JAMES

A distinguished Freemason, and formerly Provincial Grand Master of Western India under the Grand Lodge of Scotland from 1836 to 1846. In 1846 he was appointed Grand Master of Scottish Freemasons in India. He returned home in 1849, and died in 1862, after serving for thirty years in the Indian Medical Service. He was the author of an interesting work entitled a Sketch of the History of the Knights Templars. By James Burnes, LLD., F.R.S., Knight of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order; published at London, in 1840, in 74 + 60 pages in small quarto.

BURNING BUSH

In the third chapter of Exodus it is recorded that, when Moses was keeping the flock of Jethro on Mount Horeb, “the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush,” and there communicated to him for the first time his ineffable Name. This occurrence is commemorated in the Burning Bush of the Royal Arch Degree. In all the systems of antiquity, fire is adopted as a symbol of Deity ; and the Burning Bush, or the bush filled with fire which did not consume, whence came forth the Tetragrammaton, the symbol of Divine Light and Truth, is considered in the advanced degrees of Freemasonry, like the Orient in the lower, as the great source of true Masonic light ; wherefore Supreme Councils of the Thirty-Third Degree date their balustres, or official documents, “near the B.’. B.’.,” or Buming Bush, to intimate that they are, in their own rite, the exclusive source of all Masonic instruction.

BUILDER GILDS, ANCIENT

Some thirty miles southwest of Cairo, west of the Nile, and on the Libyan desert, is an oasis in a sunken depression of many hundreds of square miles, in which from 300 B.C. to 300 A.D. circa existed a number of cities and a rich civilization.

This region was sustained by an irrigation system comparable in size and as an engineering achievement with our TVA; when that irrigation system was destroyed the Fayum, as its name was, reverted to desert, and its towns were covered by sand. In 1888 Dr. W. M. Flinders Petrie exeavated a tomb at Hawara and made the astounding discovery that mummy cases there were built up of and stuffed with written papyri. Later on he had among his assistants B. P. Grenfell and Arthur S. Hunt. These two young men began in 1896 to excavate the whole Fayum, and with such success that in 1897 in the ruins of the town of Oxyrhynchus they came upon the greatest find of written manuscripts ever made in the whole history of archeology, and sent back to England tons of documents.

These had been written, most of them, in the Koine, a form of Greek in use throughout the Eastern Mediterranean during the general period of the first three centuries of our era.

These documents were not of scholarly writings but were such as could be recovered from the wastebaskets of any modern city: letters, business ledgers, wills, recipes, poems, and songs, daily papers, sermons, pamphlets, financial reports, tax receipts, etc., etc.

For the first time they gave historians a detailed, day by-day picture of men and their affairs in Egypt, Palestine, Greece, and Rome as things were in the first centuries of the Christian era. The students and historians of Freemasonry will henceforth have to examine the Fayum papyri in their studies of ancient builder gilds and of that once favorite subject of Masonic writers, the Ancient Mysteries, because among these tens of thousands of documents are many which for the first time furnish written records of gilds of that period and of the Ancient Mystery cults. In the volumes of the papyri published in 1907 and in 1910 by the British Museum are a number of documents relating to the mason crafts. Legal forms used by the ironworkers, the carpenters, and the gild of masons show that such gilds (or collegia) of the years 100 A.D. to 200 A.D. were very like the gilds of masons in the Middle Ages.

It is only now beginning to be realized that the Mason gilds of the Middle Ages from which our Fraternity is descended were of dual nature, a fact made especially evident in the body of Medieval law ; on the one side a Mason gild was a trade association for the purpose of controlling hours, wages, the rules of daily work, etc. ; on the other side it was a fraternity, with a Patron Saint, a chapel to attend, with feasts at set times, with relief for widows, orphans, etc., and for Masons in distress. The Oxyrynchus manuscripts make it clear that the builder gilds of 2000 years ago also were dual organizations of the same kind ; they met in their own rooms, had the equivalent of masters and wardens, gave relief, had feasts, also acted as burial clubs, and also were trade, or craft, organizations.

The Egypt Exploration Fund (Graeeo-Roman Branch) published Part I of the documents found by Hunt and Grenfell as The Oxyrhynchus Papyri,’ by Grenfell and Hunt; London; 1898; 37 Great Russell St., W.C., and 59 Temple Street, Boston, Mass. The latest volume at hand is Greek Shorthand Manuals, edited by H. J. M. Milne (from a family famous in Freemasonry for three centuries) ; London ; 1934. For non-archeologists one of the best introductions is the fascinatingly-written The New Archaeological Discoveries, and Their Bearing Upon the New Testalnent, etc., by Camden M. Cobem; Fttnk & Wagnalls Co. ; New York; 1917. The Twentieth Century New Testament was based on the Fayum discoveries ; some authorities believe that the books of the New Testament were written in the Koine, others that it was written first in Aramaic and then translated into the Koine,’ in either event New Testarnent Greek was the Koine instead of the Greek of Plato and Euripides.

(The shiploads of documents unearthed since 1885 in Egypt, Palestine, and Greece have swept away once and forever mountains of nonsense about the pyramid builders and the Egyptian Mysteries. Scores of Masonic writers, exercising their rights to guess, wrote pseudo-learned volumes to prove that Freemasonry began with the pyramids [a very common type of structure] or the Book of the Dead, etc. ; their theories are now rendered forever impossible. It is not an exaggeration to say that when the last of the tons of mss. are translated, edited, and published scholars can write a day-by-day history of the eastern Mediterranean countries from 300 B.C. to 300 A.D. It is an astonishing fact that less is known about the Twelfth Century in England and Europe than about that much more ancient period.)

BULLETINS, LODGE

During the first two or three decades after the forming of the first Grand Lodge of Speculative Masons in London, in 1717, the daily papers of London, and to a lesser extent in Edinburgh, Dublin, and other cities, published news about Freemasonry on the same footing as other news . In its earliest years the new Grand Lodge published no Proceedings, and did not even keep Minutes; after the Lodges had multiplied not only in London, but elsewhere they began to demand reports from the Quarterly Grand Communications. The earliest Grand Lodge Minutes (reproduced in facsimile in Quatuor Coronati Antigrapha) were in reality not Minutes but reports, and in them the list of Lodges were deemed the most important portion. It was to save the Grand Secretary the drudgery of making many copies by hand that the “Minutes” were for some years engraved by Pine with his successors hence the origin of the famous “Engraved Lists”upon which Bro. John Lane was the first and most eminent authority. (See Lane’s Lists of Lodges.)

The earliest Lodges demanded that their members should attend, and in many instances fined them for non-attendance; to make this rule “all-square” the Lodge in turn had its Tiler (who was paid) go in person to notify each member of the next Lodge meeting.

This method gradually gave way to the issuing of printed summons, for which an engraved plate was made, leaving a blank for the date ; a number of these plates were masterpieces of the engraver’s art—an art which had a large vogue in the Eighteenth Century.

The same methods were used in general by American Lodges until after the Revolution, when for about a quarter of a century they made a large use of newspapers. With the sudden explosion of the Anti-Masonic Crusade after the so-called “Morgan Affair”this publicity was stopped, and for many years was not encouraged even after the crusade had died away because it had been abused.

From the Civil War to the first decade of the Twentieth Century a Lodge either sent out no notices, or spread them by word of mouth, or published very brief and formal notices in papers.

In the beginning of this Century Lodges began the issuing of Bulletins, a method being used, or being adopted, by an ever-increasing number. In majority of instances a Bulletin is printed by the Lodge and prepared and mailed by the Secretary; in a minority of instances, especially in cities, either Bulletins or small periodicals are privately prepared and published by local printers who cover their costs and a very small margin of profits with an income from local advertising.

The typical Lodge Bulletin is a printed two or four pages leaflet, of envelope size; in it are names, addressed, and telephone numbers of Lodge officers, and oftentimes of Committee chairmen, or Committee members; notices of regular or special Communications, and of special occasions; and in some instances a small number of news items.

Lodge Bulletins have been discussed in Masonic jurisprudence; and both Grand Lodges and Grand Masters have made rules or decisions to regulate them.

It is generally accepted and established that a Lodge, or the Worshipful Master, or both, have the authority to exercise complete control of any information or news which emanates from or about a Lodge, whether published by the Lodge itself or by a private printer or publishing company.

BURNS AS MASONIC LAUREATE

On page 164 of this Encyclopedia Bro. Dudley Wright is quoted in a passage which tries to show that the long tradition that Robert Burns had been named Poet-Laureate of Canongate Kilwinning Lodge was “a happy delusion” ; and Bro. Robert I. Clegg, when quoting him, makes use of a pamphlet which that Lodge had published in 1925. It is possible that both of these cautious editors overlooked the detailed and exhaustive History of the Lodge Canongate Kilwinning No. 2, by Allan MacKenzie; Edinburgh; 1888 Bro. MacKenzie devotes the whole of one chapter to the Laureateship. Out of Lodge records, personal correspondence, the recollections of old members, newspapers, reports, and by use of internal evidence he constructs an argument solid enough and cogent enough to convince a Supreme Court.

Bro. Wright uses as an argument the fact that no record was made in the Lodge Minutes. It was never suggested that the naming of Burns as Poet Laureate had ever been made by the Lodge in an official action, and hence it naturally would not go into the Minutes ; it is more likely that it was made at a banquet, informally, by the body of the members acting spontaneously. Even so, Burns accepted it in all seriousness; as did also the Lodge, which went to great expense to have the painting made which is reproduced on the sheet following page 156.

As will be seen in the key on the sheet opposite that reproduction one of the notables whose portrait stands out conspicuously from a circle of notables is James Boswell, biographer of Dr. Samuel Johnson. Boswell was made a Mason in the Lodge in 1759 ; was Junior Warden in 1761; was Depute Master in 1767-l768 ; and Right Worshipful Master from 1773 to 1775.

Bro. MacKenzie’s book is a wonderfully moving picture of Lodge life in Eighteenth Century Scotland.

Through it move James Hogg, the ”Atrox Shepherd, ” successor to Bums as Scotland’s poet, celebrated in a stanza by Wordsworth, who when asked to be Masonic Poet Laureate first refused, then relented and wrote a Masonic “shepherd’s song” for his Lodge; Sir Wm. Forbes; the tremendous Lord Mondobbo; Henry Erskine ; some princes from Russia, etc. ; the Lockharts, father and son, the latter Sir Walter Scott’s son-in-law and biographer ; and Professor Wilson, better known as Christopher North, author of the Noctes A Ambrosianae, which American booklovers still read ; and in the background, Sir Walter Scott and his father, both enthusiastic Craftsmen in their own Lodge.

BURNS, ROBERT

One of the most celebrated and best loved of Scottish poets. William Pitt has said of his poetry, “that he could think of none since Shakespeare’s that had so much the appearance of sweetly coming from nature.” Robert Burns, or Robert Burness, as the name was originally spelled, was born at Kirk Alloway, near the town of Ayr, January 25, 1759. His father was a religious peasant-farmer living in a humble cottage on the banks of the Doon, the river destined to be eulogized so touchingly in many of Burns’ verses in after life. Burns died in the thirty-seventh year of his life on July 21, 1796, broken in health. For years he had been feted, lionized and honored by the entire Scottish nation.

At the age of twenty-three he became closely associated with the local Freemasonry, being initiated July 4, 1781, in Saint David’s Lodge, Tarbolton, shortly after the two Lodges of Saint David, No. 174, and Saint James, No. 178, in the town were united.

He took his Second and Third Degrees in the month of October following his initiation. In December Saint David’s Lodge was divided and the old Lodge of Saint James was reconstituted, Burns becoming a member. Saint James’ Lodge has still in its keeping, and we have personally inspected the Minute Books containing items written in Burns’ own handwriting, which Lodge he served as Depute Master in 1784.

From this time on Freemasonry became to the poet a great and propelling power. At the time of his initiation into Saint David’s Lodge Burns was unnoticed and unknown and, it must be admitted, somewhat unpolished in manner, although he had managed to secure before his sixteenth year what was then considered to be an “elegant” education.

With almost no exceptions his boon companions were all Freemasons and this close association with Brethren, many of whom were high in the social scale, but who recognized his talents and ability, did much to refine and stimulate him intellectually, influence his thought, inspire his muse, and develop that keen love of independence and brotherhood which later became the predominant factors of his life. The poet held the position of Depute Master of Saint James’ Lodge until about 1788, at which time he read his famous Farewell to the Brethren of Saint James’ Lodge, Tarbolton, given below:

Adieu! a heart-warm, fond adieu !
Dear Brothers of the Mystic tie!
Ye favoured, ye enlighten’d few,
Companions of my social joy!
Tho’ I to foreign lands must hie,
Pursuing Fortune’s slidd’ry ba’,
With melting heart, and brimful eye,
I’ll mind you still, tho’ far awa’.

Oft have I met your social band
And spent the cheerful, festive night ;
Oft honoured with supreme command,
Presided o’er the Sons of Light;
And by that Hierog1yphic Bright,
Which none but craftsmen ever saw!
Strong Mem’ry on my heart shall write
Those happy scenes, when far awa’!

May Freedom, Harmony, and Love,
Unite you in the Grand Design,
Beneath th’ Omniscient Eye above–
The glorious Architect Divine–
That you may keep th’ Unerring Line,
Still rising by the Plummet’s Law,
Till ORDER bright completely shine,
Shall be my pray’r when far awa’.

And you, FAREWELL! whose merits claim
Juatly the Highest Badge to wear !
Heav’n bless your honour’d, noble NAME,
To Masonry and Scotia dear.
A last request permit me here,
When yeany ye assemble a’,
One round, I ask it with a tear,
To him, the Bard that’s far awa’.

About this same time the poet presided as Master over a Lodge at Mauchline, which practice was, as a matter of fact, irregular, as the Charter of the Lodge covered only meetings held in Tarbolton, but, it is stated, Burns’ zeal in the furthering of Freemasonry was so great that he even held Lodges in his own house for the purpose of admitting new members.

Mention is also made, however, that Lodes’ were not then tied to a single meeting place as now. Regarding this, Professor Dugald Stewart, the eminent philosophic writer and thinker, and himself an Honorary Member of the Saint James Lodge, says, “In the course of the same season I was led by curiosity to attend for an hour or two a Masonic Lodge in Mauchline, where Bums presided.

He had occasion to make some short, unpremeditated compliments to different individuals from whom he had no reason to expect a visit, and everything he said was happily conceived and forcibly as well as fluently expressed.”

Burns found himself in need of funds about this time and it was due to the suggestions and assistance of Gavin Hamilton, a prominent member of the Order and a keen admirer of Bums, that the poet collected his first edition of poems and was able to have them published through the able assistance of such eminent Fellow Craftsmen as Aiken, Goudie, John Ballantine, and Gavin Hamilton. A Burns Monument has since been erected, in August, 1879, in Kay Park, which overlooks the little printing office where the first Kilmarnoek edition of his poems was published.

Dr. John Mackenzie, a man of fine literary taste and of good social position, whom Bums mentions in several of his Masonic poems, lid much at this period by. way of kindly and discerning appreciation to develop the poet’s genius and make it known to the world. It was due to a generous loan made by. John Ballantine, before mentioned, that Burns was able to make the trip to Edinburgh and have a second edition of his poems published. At Edinburgh, due to the good offices of the Masonic Brethren there, Burns was made acquainted with and was joyously accepted by the literary leaders of the Scottish capital. Reverend Thomas Blacklock, a member of the Lodge of Saint David, Edinburgh, No. 36, and afterwards Worshipful Master of Ayr Kilwinning Lodge, received Burns on his arrival, lavished upon him all the kindness of a generous heart, introduced him into a circle of friends worthy and admiring, and did all possible to further the interest of the young poet. Brother Sir Walter Scott, the novelist, addressed a letter to this Lodge of Saint David, Edinburgh, which is now in their possession in which he pays rare tribute to Robert Burns.

On October 26, 1786, Burns was made an Honorary Member of the Saint John Lodge, No. 22, Kilmarnock, the first of the Masonic Orders to designate him as their Poet and honor him with honorary membership. Just previous to this he joined the Saint Jolln’s Knwinning Lodge, Kilmarnock, warranted in 1747 but not coming under Grand Lodge until 1808, on which occasion in the Lodge was presided over by his friend, Gavin Hamilton. On February 1, 1787, Burns became a member of the Lodge of Canongate Kilwinning, No. 2, Edinburgh, which possesses the most ancient Lodge-room in the world, and this Lodge is said to have invested Burns with the title of the Poet-Laureate of Lodge Canongate Kilwinning on March 1, 1787, from which time on Burns affixed the word Bard to his signature. This Lodge issued a booklet on Saint John’s Day 1925, from which we quote the following: ‘

The fact of the inauguration of Burns as Poet.-Laureate was, some time ago, finally and judicially established after an elaborate and exhaustive inquiry by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, which possesses the well-known historic Painting representing the scene, painted by Brother Stewart Watson, and presented to Grand Lodge by Dr. James Burness, the distinguished Indian traveler and administrator, and a distant relative of Burns through his ancestry in Kincardineshire, from which Burns’ father migrated to Ayrshire.

On the other hand, Brother Dudley Wright, in the Freemason, London, February 7, 1925, says:

The principal fallacy, which has lately found frequent repetition even in some Scottish Lodges, is the statement that Robert Burns was on a certain night installed or invested as the Poet Laureale of canongate Kilwinning Lodge, No. 2.

Bums became a member of this Lodge on February 1, 17S7, as testified by the following Minute: ” The Right Worshipful Master, having observed that Brother Burns was present in the Lodge, who is well known as a great poetic writer and for a late publication of his works which have been universally commended, Submitted that he should be assumed a member of this Lodge, which was unanimously agreed to and he was assumed accordingly.”

The story runs that exactly a month afterwards, on March 1, 1787, Burns paid a second visit to Lodge canongate Kilwinning, when he was invested as Poet Laureate of this famous Lodge, and there is in existence a well-known painting of the supposed scene, which has been many times reproduced. The picture, however, is only an imaginary one, for one of the characters depicted as being present-Grose, the Antiquarian-did not become a Freemason until 1791. James Marshall, a member of the craft, published, in 1846, a small volume entitled A Winter with Robert Burns, in which he gave a full account of the supposed investiture, with biographical data of the Brethren stated to have been present on that occasion.

Robert Wylie, also, in his History of Mother Lodge Kilwinning, of which he was Secretary, published in 1878, has repeated the story, and added that ” Burns was very proud of the honor”; while Dr. Rogers, in The Book of Robert Burns, volume I, page 180 has also repeated the story, giving the date of the event as June 25, 1787, and adding the information that Lord Torpichen was then Depute Master, and that in compliment to the occasion, and as a token of personal regard, on the following day he despatched to the poet at his lodgings in the Lawnmarket a handsome edition of Spenser’s works, which the poet acknowledged in a letter.

There was a meeting of Lodge Canongate Kilwinning on March 1, 1787, the Minute of which is in existence, but it contains no reference to the investiture of Burns as Poet Laureate of the Lodge. It reads as follows: ” St. Johns chapel, March 1, 1787. The Lodge being duly constituted it was reported that since last meeting R. Dalrymple Esq., F. T. Hammond Esq., R. A. Maitland Esq., were entered apprentices; and the following brethren passed and raised : R. Sinclair Esq., Z. M’Donald Esq., C. B. Cleve Esq., captain Dalrymple, R. A. Maitland Esq., F. T. Hammond Esq., Mr. Clavering, Mr. M’Donald, Mr. Millar, Mr. Hine, and Mr. Gray, who all paid their fees to the Treasurer. No other business being before the meeting, the Lodge adjourned.”

It is not a pleasing task to dispel such a happy delusion, but it must be admitted that the investiture certainly did not take place on that occasion, when there is no record that Burns was even present. Had the investiture taken place, it would certainly have been recorded on the Minutes, especially when regard is had to the fact that his very admission to the Lodge a month previously was made the subject of so special a note. There were only three meetings of the Lodge held in 1786-7 session, and at one of these only,-that of the night of his admission as a Joining Member -is there any record of the presence of Robert Burns. But did not Burns call himself Laureated, somebody may ask. Certainly he did, particularly in the following stanza:

To please you and praise you,
Ye ken your Laureate scorns ;
The prayer still you share still
Of grateful Robert Burns.

But those words were written on May 3, 1786, before the date of his admission into Lodge, Canongate Kilwinning. While Brother Burns may not have actually been appointed Poet Laureate of Canongate Kilwinning Lodge, and the account of the meeting of February 1 does not indicate anything more than that he was “assumed” a member, yet later mention of Brother Burns in the Minutes does suggest that the Brethren in some degrees considered our Brother as Poet Laureate.

For instance, on February 9, 1815, the Lodge resolved to open a subscription among its members to aid in the erection of a “Mausoleum to the memory of Robert Burns who was a member and Poet Laureate of this Lodge. ” There is the further allusion on January 16, 1835, in connection with the appointment of Brother James Hogg, the ”Ettrick Shepherd” to the “honorary office of Poet Laureate of the Lodge, which had been in abeyance since the death of the immortal Brother Robert Burns” (see also Lodge).

Shortly after the publication of the second edition of his verse at Edinburgh, Burns set out on a tour with his friend, Brother Robert Ainslie, an Edinburgh lawyer. Brother A. M. Mackay tells us in a pamphlet issued by Lodge Saint David, Edinburgh, No. 36, on the Festival of Saint John, December 19, 1923, that “Burns visited the old fishing town during the course of a tour through the Border Counties in the early summer of 1787.” The records of the Lodge contain no reference to the Poet, or to the Royal Arch Degree of which Burns and his friend became members, but several prominent Brethren in Saint Ebbe were Royal Arch Masons and, although working under no governing authority, appear to have occasionally admitted candidates into that Order. Brothers Burns and Ainslie arrived at Eyemouth on Friday, May 18, and took up their abode in the house of Brother William Grieve, who was, the Poet informs us, “a joyous, warm hearted, jolly, clever fellow.” It was, no doubt, at the instigation of their host that the meeting of Royal Arch Masons, held on the following day, was arranged:

Eyemouth 19th May 1787. At a general encampment held this day, the following Brethren were made Royal Arch Masons, namely:

Robert Burns, from Lodge Saint James, Tarbolton, Ayrshire; and Robert Ainslie from the Lodge of Saint Luke, Edinburgh, by James Carmichael, William Grieve, Donald Dow, John Clay, Robert Grieve, etc., etc.

Robert Ainslie paid one guinea admission dues, but, on account of Brother Bum’s remarkable poetical genius, the encampment unanimously agreed to admit him gratis and considered themselves honored by having a man of such shining annuities for one of their companions.

It is suggested by Brother A. Arbuthnot Murray, formerly Grand Scribe E. of the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland, who is an authority on the old working of the Scottish Royal Arch Chapters, that Burns was probably made a Knight Templar as well, as under the old regime the two ceremonies were always given together (see also Mark).

Dudley Wright in Robert Burns and Freemasonry says, “On December 27, 1788, Burns was unanimously assumed, being a Master Masson’ a member of the Saint Andrews Lodge, No. 179, Dumiries. The Secretary wrongly described him as of ‘Saint David Strabolton Lodge, No. 178.'” The poet’s last attendance at this Lodge was in 1796, a few months after which he contracted the fatal fever which led to his death.

A word should be said here in refutation of the slanderous charge that Burns acquired the habits of dissipation, to which he was unfortunately addicted, at the festive meetings of the Masonic Lodges (see Freemasons Magazine, London, volume v, page 291), and his brother, Gilbert’s, testimony is given below, “Towards the end of the period under review, in his, twenty-fourth year, and soon after his father’s death, he was furnished with the subject of his epistle to John Rankin. During this period, also, he became a Freemason, which was his first introduction to the life of a boon companion. Yet, notwithstanding these circumstances, and the praise he has bestowed on Scotch drink, which seems to have misled his historians, I do not recollect during these seven years, nor till towards the end of his commencing author, when his growing celebrity occasioned his often being in company, to have ever seen him intoxicated ; nor was he at all given to drinking.”

Notwithstanding this, however, the poet undoubtedly enjoyed convivial gatherings and he wrote to a friend, James Smith, “I have yet fixed on nothing with respect to the serious business of life. I am, as usual, a rhyming, Mason-making, rattling, aimless, idle fellow.” In spite of this “idleness,” Burns was very prolific in verse and especially did he give of his genius liberally in service to the Masonic Order, an example of one of these verses being given below:

A’ ye whom social pleasure charms,
Whose heart the tide of kindness warms,
Wha hold your being on the terms,
Each aid the others,
come to my bowl, come to my arms,My friends, my Brothers.

Among the various poetic Masonic effusions of this “heaven-taught plowman” is the following, which was written in memory of his beloved friend, a fellow-poet and Brother, Robert Ferguson:

Curse on ungrateful man that can be pleased,
And yet can starve the author of his pleasure .
Oh, thou, my Elder Brother in misfortune,
By far my elder Brother in the Muses,
With tears I pity thy unhappy fate !
Why is the bard unfitted for the wond,
Yet has so keen a relish of its pleasures?

Part of the proceeds of the Edinburgh edition of Burns’ poems was used in the erection of a tombstone over the remains of this same Scottish poet, Robert Ferguson, on which he inscribed the stanza:

No sculptured marble here, nor pompous lay,
No storied um, nor animated bust,
This simple stone directs pale Scotis’s way,
To pour her sorrows o’er her poet’s dust.

A monument was erected for Robert Burns, himself, by public subscription, at his birthplace, January 25, 1820. The corner-stone was laid with appropriate Masonic honors by the Deputy Grand Master of the Ancient Mother Lodge at Kilwinning, assisted by all ‘the Masonic Lodges in Ayrshire.

At a meeting in 1924 of the Scots Lodge of London in honor of Robert Burns, Sir John A. Cockbum, M.D., in the address of the evening explained to us that the poet when young had suffered from a rheumatic fever that frequently resulted in a condition peculiarly liable at any time later to sudden fatal consequences. Sir John also urged that due consideration should be given to the tendency and practice of the era when Burns flourished, when a free use of intoxicants was common.

BUSINESS

Everything that is done in a Masonic Lodge, relating to the initiation of candidates into the several degrees, is called its work or labor; all transactions such as are common’,to other associations and societies come under the head of business, and they are governed with some peculiar differences by rules of order, as in other societies (see 0rder, Rules of).

BYBLOS

An ancient city of Phenicia, celebrated for the mystical worship of Adonis, who was slain by a wild boar. It was situated on a river of the same name, whose waters, becoming red at a certain season of the year by the admixture of the clay which is at its source, were said by the celebrants of the mysteries of Adonis to be tinged with the blood of that god.

This Phoenician city, so distinguished for the celebration of these mysteries, was the Gebal of the Hebrews, the birthplace of the Giblemites, or stone-squarers, who wrought at the building of King Solomon’s Temple; and thus those who have advanced the theory that Freemasonry is the successor of the Ancient Mysteries, think that they find in this identity of Byblos and Gebal another point of connection between these Institutions.

BY-LAWS

Every subordinate Lodge is permitted to make its own by-laws, provided they do not conflict with the regulations of the Grand Lodge, nor with the ancient usages of the Fraternity. But of this, the Grand Lodge is the only judge, and therefore the original by-laws of every Lodge, as well as all subsequent alterations of them, must be submitted to the Grand Lodge for approval and confirmation before they can become valid, having under the English Constitution previously been approved by the Provincial or District Grand Master.

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