Enciclopédia Mackey – CHARGE ~ CLOUDY

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES
by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D.

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CHARGE

So called from the Old Charges, because, like them, it contains an epitome of duty. It is the admonition which is given by the presiding officer, at the close of the ceremony of initiation, to the candidate, and which the latter receives standing, as a token of respect. There is a Charge for each Degree, which is to be found in all the monitors and manuals from Preston onward.

CHARITY, COMMITTEE ON

See Committee of Charity

CHARITY FUND

Many Lodges and Grand Lodges have a fund especially appropriated to charitable purposes, which is not used for the disbursement of the current expenses, but which is appropriated to the relief of indigent brethren, their widows, and orphans.

CHARLATAN

A charlatan is a babbling mountebank, who imposes on the populace by large pretensions and high-sounding words. A charlatan in Freemasonry is one who seeks by a display of pompous ceremonial, and often by claims to supernatural powers, to pervert the Institution of Freemasonry to the acquisition of mere gain, or the gratification of a paltry ambition. Every man, says a distinguished writer, is a charlatan who extorts money by charging for sixpenny trash the amount that should only be paid for works of science, and that, too, under the plea of conveying knowledge that cannot otherwise be obtained (Freemasons Magazine, London, 1844, page 505). The eighteenth century presented many examples of the Masonic charlatans, of whom Brother Mackey deemed the one by far the greatest was Cagliostro; nor has the nineteenth century been entirely without them.

CHARLEMAGNE

The great Charles, King of France, who ascended the throne in the year 768, is claimed by some Masonic writers as a patron of Freemasonry. This is perhaps because architecture flourished in France during his reign, and because he encouraged the arts by inviting the architects and traveling Freemasons, who were then principally confined to Italy, to visit France and engage in the construction of important edifices. The claim has been made that at his castle at Aix-la-Chapelle he set apart a room or rooms in which the seven liberal arts and sciences were taught. This comprised a liberal education for that period.

CHARLES MARTEL

He was the founder of the Carlovingian dynasty, and governed France with , supreme power from 720 to 741, under the title of Duke of the Franks, the nominal kings being only his puppets. He is claimed by the authors of the Old Records as one of the patrons of Freemasonry. Thus, the Manuscript (Grand Lodge, No. l, Volume iv, Quatuor Coronati Lodge reprints) tells us: “There was one of the Royal Line of France called Charles Marhsall, and he was a man that loved well the said Craft and took upon him the Rules and Manners, and after that BY THE GRACE OF GOD he was elect to be the King of France, and when he was in his Estate he helped to make those Masons that were now, and sett them on Work and gave them Charges and Manners and good pay as he had learned of other Mascns, and confirmed them a Charter from year to year to hold their Assembly when they would, and cherished them right well, and thus came this Noble Craft into France and England.”

Rebold, in his History, has accepted this legend as authentic, and says: “In 740, Charles Martel, who reigned in France under the title of Mayor of the Palace at the request of the Anglo-Saxon kings, sent many workmen and Masters into England.”

CHARLES I AND II

For their supposed connection with the origin of Freemasonry, see Stuart Freemasonry.

CHARLES XIII

The Duke of Sudermanland was distinguished for his attachment to Freemasonry. In 1809 he ascended the throne of Sweden under the title of Charles XIII, Having established the Masonic Order of Knighthood of that name, he abdicated in favor of Charles John Bernadotte, but always remained an active and zealous member of the Order. There is no king on record so distinguished for his attachment to Freemasonry as Charles XIII, of Sweden, and to him the Swedish Freemasons are in a great measure indebted for the high position that the Order has maintained in that country.

CHARLES XIII, ORDER OF

An Order of knighthood instituted in 1811 by Charles XIII, King of Sweden, which was to be conferred only on the principal dignitaries of the Masonic Institution in his dominions. In the manifesto establishing the Order, the king says: “To give to this Society (the Masonic) a proof of our gracious sentiments towards it, we will and ordain that its first dignitaries to the number which we may determine, shall in future be decorated with the most intimate proof of our confidence, and which shall be for them a distinctive mark of the highest dignity.” The number of Knights are twenty-seven, all Freemasons, and the King of Sweden is the perpetual Grand Master. The ribbon is red, and the jewel a maltese cross pendant from an imperial crown.

CHARLESTON

A city in the United States of America, and the metropolis of the State of South Carolina. It was there that the first Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite was established in 1801, whence all other Supreme Councils have emanated, directly or indirectly. Hence, it has assumed the title of Mother Council of the World. The headquarters of the Southern Supreme Council were removed in 1870 to the city of Washington (see Scottish Rite).

CHARMS, MAGICAL

See Talisman

CHART I

A map on which is delineated the emblems of a degree, to be used for the instruction of candidates, formerly called a carpet, which see. 2. The title given by Jeremy L. Cross to his Hieroglyphic Monitor, which acquired on its first appearance in the Lodges of America a popularity that it has not yet entirely lost. Hence the word chart is still sometimes used colloquially and improperly to designate any other Masonic manual of monitorial instruction.

CHARTER

Often used for Warrant of Constitution, which see.

CHARTERED LODGE

A Lodge working under the authority of a Charter or Warrant of Constitution issued by a Grand Lodge as distinguished from a Lodge working under a Dispensation issued by a Grand Master. Chartered Lodges only are entitled to representation in the Grand Lodge. They alone can make by-laws, elect members or have their officers installed- They are the constituent Bodies of a Jurisdiction, and by their representatives compose the Grand Lodge.

CHARTER IS, FRANCIS

Sixth Earl of Wemyss Grand Master of Scotland, 1747. Another Francis Charteris, afterwards Lord Elcho, was Deputy Grand Master of Scotland 1786-7.

CHARTER MEMBER

A Freemason whose name is attached to the petition upon which a Charter or Warrant of Constitution has been granted to a Lodge, Chapter, or other subordinate body.

CHARTER OF COLOGNE

See Cologne, Charter of

CHARTER OF EDWIN

See Edwin Charges and Edwin

CHARTER OF TRANSMISSION

See Transmission, Charter of

CHARTRES, LOUIS PHILIPPE JOSEPH, DUKE OF

Afterwards Duke of Orleans, known as Egalité or Equality. Succeeded Comte de Clermont as Grand Master of France in 1771. In 1793, January 5, a letter in the Journal de Paris, signed Egalité, repudiated the Grand Orient of France and Freemasonry, to which the Grand Orient replied by declaring the Grand Mastership vacant (see Histoire de la Franc-Maçonnerie, Albert Lantoine, 1925, Paris, page 74). Died by the guillotine November 6, 1793. Besuchet says that the Duke de Chartres was not the head of the entire Masonic Order as there was also in existence the Grand Lodge of France and the Grande Loge Nationale, or the Grand Orient de France.

CHASIDIM

In Hebrew, pronounced Khaw-seed-eem, meaning saints. The name of a seet which existed in the time of the Maccabees, and which was organized for the purpose of opposing innovations upon the Jewish faith. Their essential principles were to observe all the ritual laws of purification, to meet frequently for devotion, to submit to acts of self-denial and mortification, to have all things in common, and sometimes to withdraw from society and to devote themselves to contemplation. Lawrie, History of Freemasonry (page 38), who seeks to connect them with the Masonic Institution as a continuation of the Freemasons of the Solomonic era, describes them under the name of Kasideans as “a religious Fraternity, or an Order of the Knights of the Temple of Jerusalem, who bound themselves to adorn the porches of that magnificent structure, and to preserve it from injury and decay. This association was composed of the greatest men of Israel, who were distinguished for their charitable and peaceful dispositions, and always signalized themselves by their ardent zeal for the purity and preservation of the Temple.”

CHASTANIER, BENEDICT

A French surgeon, who in the year 1767 introduced into England a modification of the Rite of Pernetty, in nine degrees, and established a Lodge in London under the name of the Illuminated Theosophists ; which, however, according to Lenning, soon abandoned the Masonic forms, and was converted into a mere theosophic sect, intended to propagate the religious system of Swedenborg. White, in his Life of Emanuel Swedenborg, published at London in 1868 (page 683), gives an account of “The Theosophical Society’, instituted for the purpose of promoting the Heavenly Doctrines of the New Jerusalem by translating, printing, and publishing the theological writings of Emanuel Swedenborg.” This society was formed in 1784, and met on Sundays and Thursdays at Chambers in New Court, Middle Temple, for the discussion of Swedenborg’s writings. Among the twenty-five persons mentioned by White as having either joined the society or sympathized with its object, we find the name of “Benedict Chastanier, Freach Surgeon, 62 Tottenham Court.” The nine degrees of Chastanier’s Rite of Illuminated Theosophists are as follows: 1, 2, and 3, Symbolic degrees; 4, 5, 6, Theosophic Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master; 7, Sublime Scottish Mason, or Celestial Jerusalem; 8, Blue Brother; and 9, Red Brother.

CHASTITY

In the Regius or Halliwell Manuseript of the Constitutions of Freemasonry, written not later than the latter part of the fourteenth century, the seventh point is in these words: Thou schal not by thy maystres Wyf ly, Ny by thy felows yn no manner wyse, Lest the Craft wold the despyse; Ny by thy felows concubyne, No more thou woldest he dede by thyne. Again, in the Constitutions known as the Matthew Cooke Manuscript, the date of which is about the latter part of the fifteenth century, the same regulation is enforced in these words : ”The 7th Point. That he covet not the wyfe ne the daughter of his masters, another of his fellows but if (unless) hit be in maryage.” So all through the Old Constitutions and Charges we find this admonition to respect the chastity of our Brethren’s wives and daughters ; an admonition which, it is scarcely necessary to say, is continued to this day.

CHASUBLE

The outer dress which is worn by the priest at the altar service, and is an imitation of the old Roman toga. It is a circular cloth, which falls down over the body so as completely to cover it, with an aperture in the center for the head to pass through. It is used in the ceremonies of the Rose Croix Degree.

CHECKERED FLOOR

See Mosaic Pavement

CHEF-D’OEUVRE

French, meaning superior production. It was a custom among many of the gilds, and especially among the Compagnans du Devoir, who sprang up in the sixteenth century in France, on the decay of Freemasonry in that kingdom, and as one of its results, to require every Apprentice, before he could be admitted to the freedom of the gild, to present a piece of finished work as a proof of his skill in the art in which he had been instructed. The piece of work was called his chef-d’oeuvre, or masterpiece.

CHEQUERED FLOOR

See Mosaic Pavement

CHEREAU, ANTOINE GUILLAUME

He was a painter in Paris, who published, in 1806, two hermetico-philosophical works entitled Explication de la Pierre Cubique, and Explication de la Croix Philosophique; or Explanations of the Cubical Stone and of the Philosophical Cross. These works are brief, but give much interesting information on the ritualism and symbolism of the advanced degrees. They have been republished by Tessier in his Manuel General, without, however, any acknowledgment to the original author.

CHERUBIM

The second order of the angelic hierarchy, the first being the seraphim. The two cherubim that overtopped the merey-seat or covering of the ark, in the holy of holies, were placed there by Moses, in obedience to the orders of God : ” And thou shalt make two cherubims of gold, of beaten work shalt thou make them, in the two ends of the mercyseat. And the cherubims shall stretch forth their wings on high, covering the mercy-seat with their wings, and their faces shall look one to another; towards the mercy-seat shall the faces of the cherubims be” (see Exodus xxv, 18, 20). It was between these cherubim that the Shekinah or Divine Presence rested, and from which issued the Bathkol or Voice of God. Of the form of these cherubim we are ignorant. Josephus says that they resembled no known creature, but that Moses made them in the form in which he saw them about the throne of God; others, deriving their ideas from what is said of them by Ezekiel, Isaiah, and Saint John, describe them as having the face and breast of a man, the wings of an eagle, the belly of a lion, and the legs and feet of an ox, which three animals, with man, are the symbols of strength and wisdom. But all agree in this, that they had wings, and that these wings were extended. The cherubim were purely symbolic. But although there is great diversity of opinion as to their exact signification, yet there is a very general agreement that they allude to and symbolize the protecting and overshadowing power of the Deity. Reference is made to the extended wings of the cherubim in the Degree of Royal Master. Much light has been thrown upon the plastic form of these symbols, says Brother C. T. MeClenachan, not only as to the Cherubim of the Ark of the Covenant spoken of in Exodus, Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles, but those of Chaldeo-Assyrian art which beautified the gates of the palace of Sennacherib at Nineveh, and other structures. Brother McClenachan adds the following comments : The Kirubi of the Assyrian type, in the shape of bulls with extended wings, in nowise meet the description given above. The figures which can be found in various places upon Egyptian monuments, placed face to face on either side of the Naos of the gods, and stretching out their arms, furnished with great wings, as though to envelop them (see Wilkinson, Manners and Custom of Ancient Egyptians, 1878, volume iii), more fully meet the idea-in fact, it is convincing, when we remember the period, and note that all else about the sacred furnishings of the Tabernacle, or Ohel-mo’ed, are exclusively Egyptian in form, as well as the sacerdotal costumes (see L’Egypte et Moïse, by Abbé Ancessi, Paris, 1875). Furthermore, this was most natural, since the period was immediately after the exodus. The Cherubim of the Ark were remodeled by Solomon after designs by his father, David (First Chronicles xxviii, 18). At this epoch, says François Lenormant, Professor of Archeology at the National Library of France, in his Beginnings of History, 1882, the Egyptian influence was no longer supreme in its sway over the Hebrews; that the Assyro-Babylonian influence balanced it; that the new Cherubim, then executed, may have been different from the ancient ones as described in Exodus; in fact, Kirubi after the Assyrian type, which formed a Merkabah, meaning a chariot (First Chronicles xxviii, 18), upon which Yahveh was seated. In the Egyptian monuments the gods are often represented between the forward-stretching wings of sparrow-hawks or vultures. placed face to face, and birds of this kind often enfold with their wings the divine Naos. The adornment of the Tabernacle, as mentioned in Exodus, excluded every figure susceptible of an idolatrous character, which is far from being the case in what we know of the Temple of Solomon. In the matter of plastic images, none was admitted save only the Cherubim, which were not only placed upon the Ark, but whose representations are woven into the hangings of the Mishkan and the veil which separates the Holy Place from the Holy of Holies. It is therefore most probable that the Cherubim of Exodus were great eagles or birds-Kurubi-while under the remodeling by Solomon these were changed to Kirubi with human faces. The prophet Ezekiel describers four hay-yoth or Cherubim, two and two, back to back, and going “each one straight forward” toward the four quarters. The Cherubim of the Merkabah of Ezekiel have four wings-two lifted up and two covering their back and four human faces set in pairs, to the right and to the left, one of a man, one of a bull, one of a lion, and one of an eagle-the faces of creatures which combine all the emblems of strength depicted by the Chaldeo-Assyrian bull. Ezekiel thus describes the Cherubim with several faces which, alternately with the palm-trees, decorated the frieze around the interior of the temple at Jerusalem: “Each Kerub had two faces, a man’s face turned one way toward the palm-tree, and a lion’s face turned the other way toward the other palm-tree; and it was in this wise all around the house.” The following information, furnished by Professor Lenormant, on the subject of Cherubim, is important: “Deductions were formerly made from the Aryan theory to support primitive tradition as to origin and form, but these have been overthrown, and the Semitic interpretation made manifest through finding the name of the Cherubim in the cuneiform inscriptions; that in place of referring the Hebrew word kerub to the Aryan root grabh, meaning to seize, the word is more properly of Semitic origin, from the root karab, signifying bull, or a creature strong and powerful. Referring to the prophet Ezekiel (i, 10, and x, 14), the two parallel passages use the word kerub interchangeably with shore, bull, the face of a bull and face of a cherub, which are synonymous expressions. Since we have come to know those colossal images of winged bulls with human faces, crowned with the lofty cidaris, decorated with several pairs of horns, which flanked the gateways of the Assyrian palaces, a number of scholars, intimately acquainted with antique sculpture, have been zealous in associating them with the Cherubim of the Bible. The winged bull with a human head figures in a bas-relief in the palace of Khorsabad as a favoring and protecting genius, which watches over the safe navigation of the transports that carry the wood of Lebanon by sea. The bulls whose images are placed at the gateways of the palaces and temples, as described in the above ideographic group, are the guardian genii, who are looked upon as living beings. As the result of a veritable magical operation, the supernatural creature is supposed to reside within these bodies of stone.” In a bilingual document, Akkadian with an Assyrian version, we read invocations to the two bulls who flanked the gate of the infernal abode, which were no longer simulacra of stone, but living beings, like the bulls at the gates of the celestial palaces of the gods. The following is one of the unique expressions made in the ear of the bull which stands to the right of the bronze enclosure: “Great Bull, most great Bull, stamping before the holy gates, he opens the interior; director of Abundance, who supports the god Nirba, he who gives their glory to the cultivated fields, my pure hands sacrifice toward thee. ” Similar expressions were then made on the other side. These genii, in the form of winged bulls with human countenances, were stationed as guardians at the portals of the edifices of Babylonia and Assyria, and were given the name of Kirubi ; thus, Kirubu damqu lippaqid, meaning May the propitious Kirub guard. Numerous authorities may be given to show that the Chaldeo-Assyrians’ Kirub, from the tenth to the fifth century before our era, whose name is identical with the Hebrew Kerub, was the winged bull with a human head. The Israelites, during the times of the Kings and the Prophets, pictured to themselves the Cherubim under this form. The figures of the Cherubim are said to have defeated Dante’s power of constructive imagination.

CHESED

A word which is generally corrupted into Hesed. It is the Hebrew pronounced chesed, and signifies mercy. Hence it very appropriately refers to that act of kindness and compassion which is commemorated in the degree of Select Master of the American system. It is the fourth of the Cabalistic Sephiroth, and is combined in a triad with Beauty and Justice.

CHEVALIER

Employed by the French Freemasons as the equivalent of Knight in the name of any degree in which the latter word is used by English Freemasons as Chevalier du Soleil for Knight of the Sun, or Chevalier de l’Orient for Knight of the East. The German word is Ritter.

CHIBBELUM

A significant word used in the rituals of the eighteenth century, which define it to mean a worthy Freemason. It is a corruption of Giblim.

CHROMATIC CALENDAR. THE FIVE POINTS
COLORS, ELEMENTS, AND POINTS, OF THE FIVE RULERS
BLACK, RED, GREEN, WHITE, YELLOW

In the great Temple, usually known as the Ocean Banner Monastery, at Honam, a suburb of Canton, China, we find four colossal idols occupying a large porch, each image being painted a different color. Ch’i-kwoh, who rules the north and grants propitious winds, is dark ; Kwang-muh is red, and to him it is given to rule the south and control the fire, air, and water; To-man’ rules the west, and grants or withholds rain, his color being white; while Chang-tsang, whose color is green, rules the winds and keeps them within their proper bounds, his supreme control being exercised over the east. The old custom of associating colors with the four quarters of the globe has probably led to the habit of describing the winds from these respective points as possessed of the same Colors. The fifth, the earth, the central remaining point, still is conjectural. Thus, we also find in China a set of deities known as the five rulers; their colors, elements, and points may be thus represented as in the table.

Black ….. Water ….. North …. Back
Red …….. Fire …….. South …. Breast
Green ….. Wood …. East ……. Mouth
White ….. Metal …. West …… Knee
Yellow …. Earth …. Middle … Foot

COLORS, ELEMENTS, AND POINTS, OF THE FIVE RULERS

These again are in turn associated with the planets, and the study of Chinese and Babylonian planet colors is full of curious points of similarity.

BLACK, typifying the north, has two direct opponents in symbolic colors, and these are red and white. The first as implying ignorance arising from evil passions, the second indicating ignorance of mind.

Red-black is called in Hebrew Heum, from which comes Heume, an enclosing wall. Black from white, in Hebrew, is Seh-her, signifying the dawn of light to the mind of the Masonic profane, the hand to back, as the words of wisdom are about to be spoken.

In the Egyptian, the black Osiris appears at the commencement of the Funereal Ritual, representing the state of the soul which passes into the world of light.

Anubis, one of the sons of Osiris, who weighs the soul in the seales of Amenti, and is the god of the dead, is black. The Conductor, or Master of Ceremonies, Thoth Psychopompe, has the head of the black Ibis (see Truth).

RED
In Hebrew, the fire of love, which burns in the south, is are, to bum, On Egyptian monuments, and in their temples, the flesh of men is painted red, and that of women, yellow. The same difference exists between the gods and goddess, except where speciality otherwise defined. Mill’s name in Hebrew signifies red, and as the image of fire is love, it is the universal tie of beings from breast to breast.

GREEN
pronounced yeh’-rek, meaning green thing, verdure. pronounced rake-eh-ah meaning vault of heaven, the firmament, also the winds. Green designates the beginning, the creation, the birth, as the world was called into being in the wisdom of God by his word of mouth, and Light was to appear in the East.

Phtha was the Egyptian Creator of the world; he was at times represented with his flesh painted green, and holding a scepter of four colors, red, blue, green, and yellow: fire, air, water, and earth. The god Lunus, the Moon, in Hebrew pronounced yeh-rak, is formed of one of the roots of green, signifying to found or set in order. Green is the symbol of Victory as well as Hope, in the symbolic colors (see Green).

WHITE
He-ur, to be white; Heurim, meaning to be noble and pure. The Egyptian spirits of the dead were clothed in white, like the priests. Phtha, the creator and generator, was frequently robed in a white vestment, symbol of the egg from which he was born, enveloped in the white or albumen. The head of Osiris was draped in a white tunic. While the Chinese metaphorically represented Metal by this color, the Egyptians and Hebrews made it the symbol of Earth.

Its reference to the West would imply the first point whereat the profane bent the knee in supplication to the Deity.

YELLOW
pronounced tsaw-hab, gold color, designates a radiation of light, signifying to shine, to be resplendent. Man, or the male principle, symbolized by ardent fire, was represented by red, and the female principle, identified with the idea of light or flame, represented by yellow or light-colored earth, over which the swift-footed messenger bears the tidings of a Freemason’s distress and the return of obligatory succor. This light of the fire, the female of Divine beauty, the Egyptian Venus, was called Athor, signifying dwelling of Horus, and was as represented in the engraving.

CHURCH, FREEMASONS OF THE

An Architectural College was organized in London, in the year 1842, under the name of Freemasons of the Church for the Recovery, Maintenance, and Furtherance of the True Principles and Practice of Architecture. The founders announced their objects to be “the rediscovery of the ancient principles of architecture; the sanction of good principles of building, and the condemnation of bad ones; the exercise of scientific and experienced judgment in the choice and use of the most proper materials ; the infusion, maintenance, and advancement of science throughout architecture ; and eventuality, by developing the powers of the College upon a just and beneficial footing, to reform the whole practice of architecture, to raise it from its present vituperated condition, and to bring around it the same unquestioned honor which is at present enjoyed by almost every other profession” (Builder, volume 1, page 23).

One of their own members has said that “the title was not intended to express any conformity, with the general body of Freemasons, but rather as indicative of the professed views of the College, namely, recovery, maintenance, and furtherance of the free principles and practice of architecture.” And that, in addition, they made it an object of their exertions to preserve or effect the restoration of architectural remains of antiquity threatened unnecessarily with demolition or endangered by decay. But it is evident, from the close connection of modern Freemasonry with the building gilds of the Middle Ages, that any investigations into the condition of medieval architecture must throw light on Masonic history.

CIPRIANI, JEAN BAPTISTE

Born in 1727, died in 1785. A famous Florentine artist, who came to England in 1755, and co-operated with Bartolozzi in the production of the frontispiece of the 1784 edition of the Book of Constitutions.

CIRCLE

The circle being a figure which returns into itself, and having therefore neither beginning nor end, has been adopted in the symbology of all countries and times as a symbol sometimes of the universe and sometimes of eternity. With this idea in the Zoroastrian mysteries of Persia, and frequently in the Celtic mysteries of Druidism, the temple of initiation was circular. In the obsolete lectures of the old English system, it was said that “the circle has ever been considered symbolical of the Deity; for as a circle appears to have neither beginning nor end, it may be justly considered a type of God, without either beginning of days or ending of years. It also reminds us of a future state, where we hope to enjoy everlasting happiness and joy.” But whatever refers especially to the Masonic symbolism of the circle ,will be more appropriately contained in the article on the Point within a Circle.

CIRCLES

The name in German is Kränzchen
There are in Germany many small Masonic clubs, or Circles, which are formed in subordination to some Lodge which exercises a supervision over them and is responsible for their good behavior to the Grand Lodge, by whose permission they have been established. The members devote themselves to Masonic work, organize lectures, ete., and acquire a Masonic library (see Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, ix, 66).

CIRCUIT

Fort, in his Early History and Antiquities of Freemasonry, says: “Northern kings, immediately upon acceding to the throne, made a ‘gait’ or procession about their realms. According to the Scandinavian laws, when real property was sold, granted, or conveyed, the transfer of possession was incomplete until a circuit was made around the estate by the buyer and vendor, in which tour all the inhabitants of the nearest hamlet united.

“During the installation ceremonies of the Master of a Masonic Lodge, a procession of all the Craftsmen march around the room before the Master, to whom an appropriate salute is tendered. This Circuit is designed to signify that the new incumbent reduces the Lodge to his possession in this symbolic manner” (Fort’s Early History, page 320; see also Circumambulation).

CIRCULAR TEMPLES

These were used in the initiations of the religion or Zoroaster. Like the square temples of Freemasonry, and the other mysteries, they were symbolic of the world; and the symbol was completed by making the circumference of the circle a representation of the zodiac. In the mysteries of Druidism also, the temples were sometimes circular.

CIRCUMAMBULATION, RITE OF

Circumambulation is the name given by sacred archeologists to that religious rite in the ancient initiations which consisted in a formal procession around the altar, or other holy and consecrated object. The same Rite exists in Freemasonry.

In ancient Greece, when the priests were engaged in the rite of sacrifice, they and the people always walked three times round the altar while singing a sacred hymn. In making this procession, great care was taken to move in imitation of the course of the sun. For this purpose; they commenced at the east, and passing on by the way of the south to the west and thence by the north, they arrived at the east again. The strophe of the ancient hymn was sung in going from the east to the West : the antistrophe in returning to the east, and the epode while standing still. The strophe in Greek choral poetry was the first in a pair of two corresponding stanzas, or rhymed lines ; the second being called the antistrophe. The epode was the name for the last part of an ancient ode or poem. In this procession, as it will be observed, the right hand was always placed to the altar. “After this,” says Potter, “they stood about the altar, and the priest, turning towards the right hand, went round it and sprinkled it with meal and holy water”, (Antiquities of Greece, Book II, chapter iv, page 206). This ceremony the Greeks called moving, from the right to the right, which was the direction of the motion, and the Romans applied to it the term dextrovorsum, or dextrorsum, which signifies the same thing. Thus, Plautus (Curculis, 1,1, 70), makes Palinurus, a character in his comedy of Curculio, say: “If you would do reverence to the gods, you must turn to the right hand,” Si deos salutas dextroversum censeo. Gronovius, in commenting on this passage of Plautus, says : ”In worshiping and praying to the gods, they were accustomed to turn to the right hand.” A hymn of Callimachus has been preserved, which is said to have been chanted by the priests of Apolio at Delos, while performing this ceremony of circumambulation, the substance of which is ”we imitate the example of the sun, and follow his benevolent course. ”

Among the Romans, the ceremony of circumambulation was always used in the rites of sacrifice, of expiation or purification. Thus, Vergil (Aeneid, vi, 229), describes Corynacus as purifying his companions at the funeral of Misenus, by passing three times around them while aspersing them with the lustral waters; and to do so conveniently, it was necessary that he should have moved with his right hand toward them.

Idem ter socios pura circumtulit unda,
Spargens rore levi et ramo felicis olivae.
That is:
Thrice with pure water compass’d he the crew,
Sprinkling, with olive branch, the gentle dew.

In fact, so common was it to unite the ceremony of circumambulation with that of expiation or purification, or, in other words, to make a circuitous procession in performing the latter rite, that the term lustrate, whose primitive meaning is to purify, came at last to be synonymous with circumire, to walk round anything, and hence a purification and a circumambulation were often expressed by the same word.

The circuit of sacred places as a significant religious rite has many recorded examples. William Simpson (The Jonah Legend, page 18), says: “With the Semites there is one example which appears to be a good illustration of the principle. The pilgrims of Mecca perform what is considered to be a very sacred part of the ceremonies ; that is, the tawuf. or circumambulation of the Kaabah. The reason given for this is that the first Kaabah was an imitation of the celestial throne which is constantly being circumambulated by the angels. Going round sacred places and things is not peculiar to the Semites; it is a ritualistic custom that can be traced through most parts of the ancient world, and in many cases it is continued down to our own times. Being part of the ritual at the Kaabah, it is not difficult to understand how it gave birth to the mythos of the angels and the throne.”

Among the Hindus, the same Rite of Circumambulation has always been practiced. As an instance, we may cite the ceremonies which are to be performed by a Brahman, upon first rising from bed in the morning, an accurate account of which has been given by Colebrooke in the sixth volume of the Asiatic Researches.

The priest having first adored the sun, while directing his face to the east, then walks toward the west by the way of the south, saying, at the same time, “I follow the course of the sun,” which he thus explains: “As the sun in his course moves round the world by way of the south, so do I follow that luminary, to obtain the benefit arising from a journey round the earth by the way of the south.” Lastly, we may refer to the preservation of this Rite among the Druids, whose “mystical dance” around the caim, or heap of sacred stones, was in the opinion of Brother Mackey nothing more nor less than the Rite of Circumambulation.

On these occasions, the priest always made three circuits from east to west, by the right hand, around the altar or cairn, accompanied by all the worshipers. And so sacred was the rite once considered, that we learn from Toland (Celtic Religion and Learning, II, xvii), that in the Scottish Isles, once a principal seat of the Druidical religion, the people “never come to the ancient sacrificing and fire-hallowing cairns, but they walk three times around them, from east to west, according to the course of the sun.” This sanctified tour, or round by the south, he observes, is called Deaseal, as the contrary, or unhallowed one by the north, is called Tuapholl. And, he further remarks, that this word Deaseal was derived ”from Deas, the right (understanding in this case the hand) and soil, one of the ancient names of the sun ; the right hand in this round being ever next the heap.”

This Rite of Circumambulation undoubtedly refers to the doctrine of sun-worship, because the circumambulation was always made around the sacred place, just as the sun was supposed to move around the earth; and although the dogma of sun-worship does not of course exist in Freemasonry, we find an allusion to it in the Rite of Circumambulation, which it preserves, as well as in the position of the officers of a Lodge and in the symbol of a point within a circle. The Rite of Circumambulation may not be without some suggestion of the old ceremony of beating the bounds or, as it is called in Scotland, riding the marches, a custom still observed in some cities. The procession usually started and ended at the town cross if there should be one. So much we are told on page 16 of By-Gone Church Life in Scotland in an essay by Reverend George S. Tyack.

A more elaborate discussion of the old ceremony of beating the bounds is given by John T. Page in the collection of essays contained in Curious Church Customs edited by William Andrews. From this we learn that in the early days when deities were called into existence at the will of any human power we may note the fact that somewhere between the years 715 and 672 B.C. Numa Pompilius introduced to the Roman cities the worship of the god, Terminus. The king originated a plan by which the fields of the cities were separated from each other by means of boundary stones. These were dedicated and made sacred to a god Terminus. Terminalia, as the Feast of Terminus was called, was celebrated annually on the 23rd of February. On this day the people turned out in force and visiting the several boundary stones, bedecked them out with flowers and performed various sacrificial rites with great rejoicing.

From the seventh century before Christ to the present time is a long step, but it is generally admitted that in this yearly Terminalia of the ancient Romans we have the germ of the custom known as beating the bounds ,which in many parishes throughout England is still carried out either annually or every third or seventh year as the case may be.

The early Christians readily adopted some of the heathen customs to their own requirements. Thus we soon find them making a perambulation around their fields accompanied by their bishops and clergy. They repeated litanies and implored God to avert plague and pestilence and to enable them in due season to reap the fruits of the earth. We find these processions recorded as early as the 550th year of the Christian era.

The curious custom of whipping during these processions around the bounds of any particular locality came to form a part of the ceremony. In order that the boundaries of the parish might be deeply impressed on the younger portion of the community, it became common to publicly whip a boy while he was near one of these landmarks in the course of the procession. In order to encourage the youngsters to undergo this treatment, we find that a present was usually given to them at the close of the proceedings.

Something of the same sort has been preserved in certain religious observances whenever a piece of property has been dedicated for sacred use. Then the procession marches around the various boundary marks and dedicates them solemnly.

In all this there is a kinship showing the ancient source of the Rite of Circumambulation.

CLANDESTINE

The ordinary meaning of this word is secret, hidden. The French word clandestin, from which it is derived, is defined by Boiste to be something fait en cachette et contre les lois, a phrase meaning in the French language Done in a hiding place and against the laws, which better suits the Masonic signification, which refers to what is illegal, or not authorized. Irregular is the word which is often used for small departures from custom.

Brothers Newton R. Parvin, former Grand Secretary of Iowa, and C. C. Hunt, who succeeded him in office, have sent us an account of the American Masonic Federation.

A book, the Thomson Masonic Fraud, a Study in Clandestine Masonry, has also been written by Brother Isaac Blair Evans, United States Attorney for Utah in 1921, who not only prepared the case, with the assistance of Brother M. G. Price, for presentation to the Grand Jury but also drew the indictment upon which Messrs. Thomson, Perrot, and Bergera were Convected.

The principal reason for the financial success of the American Masonic Federation was, as Brothers Parvin, Hunt and Blair point out, due to the general ignorance of the Craft on the subject of Masonic history and Law. By setting forth claims on this subject, which very few Freemasons because of lack of knowledge were able to disprove, the convicted persons were able to impose upon the public. We may here point out that neither the Judge nor any member of the jury were Freemasons. From these two sources of first hand information the following particulars are obtained. Brother Evans says in the introduction to his book, page 1.

The conviction in the Federal Court at Salt Lake City, Utah, on May 15, 1922, of Matthew A.McBlain Thomson, Thomas Perrot and Dominic Bergera, of using the mails to defraud, was the culmination of efforts of the United States Government, begun in 1915, to have a reckoning with the perpetrators of one of the most ingenious mail frauds, and the most daring and spectacular Masonic imposture in American history. No one can study the facts in the case without sensing keenly the great importance of this trial, both in the history of crimes and the history of Masonry. Future accounts of celebrated American mail frauds will surely be incomplete without some mention of this bold swindle which had gone its way without molestation for more than a decade.

For about fifteen years there had been an organization at work in the United States headed by one Matthew McBlain Thomson, formerly a member of two Lodges in Scotland and a Past Master of one of them. He came to America and affiliated with King Solomon Lodge No. 27 of Montpelier, Idaho. Later on he took a dimit from this Lodge and then formed an organization, which became the American Masonic Federation. Thomson claimed to have 10,000 members, and that his organization had been recognized in practically every country in the world. He put forth plausible arguments to convince people that he had authority to form his organization and confer Masonic degrees.

This he was able to do by making statements which only those who were posted in Masonic history and jurisprudence could refute. He claimed that with the exception of Louisiana, the United States was unoccupied territory Masonically, and that not one of the Grand Lodges in the United States had a Charter authorizing it to work; that each of the thirteen Colonies organized a Grand Lodge of its own, without obtaining consent of the Grand Lodge from which their Charters had originally been issued; that the Lodges in the Colonies, by this breaking away from the home Grand Lodges of Great Britain without first obtaining consent, became irregular and clandestine organizations, and that, therefore, the field in the United States was open to any regular organization that chose to occupy it; that later recognition by the Grand Lodges of Great Britain did not make these self-formed Grand Lodges of the United States legitimate; that they are clandestine, also, because of the alleged fact that they are not universal and refuse to recognize Freemasons in other countries on account of religion, race, or some other assumed reason, contrary to the principles of universality.

As for himself, Thomson claimed descent through lawful Charters from Mother Kilwinning Lodge No. 0, of Scotland, to Saint Johns Mother Lodge at Marseilles, France, and that this latter body chartered Polar Star Lodge in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1794; that Polar Star Lodge became a constituent part of the Supreme Council of Louisiana, and that this Supreme Council, on September 14, 1906, granted a Charter of authority to Matthew McBlain Thomson to form Craft or Symbolic Grand and Subordinate Lodges of Masons, and that by virtue of this Charter he, Thomson, granted a Charter to the Grand Lodge Inter-Montana.

Thus, he claimed that he alone had the true Scottish Rite Masonry since his came from Scotland, while the so-called Scottish Rite Masonry of the United States either originated in the United States or came from France, not Scotland.

For the Higher degrees of Masonry, as he called them, he claimed authority by virtue of a Charter from the Grand Council of Rites of Scotland, which he asserted to be “The oldest High degree Body in the world and all High Degree Diplomas came directly from the Grand Council in Scotland.” He also claimed that the Grand Council of Rites derived from Mother Kilwinning Lodge. Such in brief is the “chain of title” claimed by Thomson. As a matter of fact there is not a sound link in the entire chain, but only a student of Masonic history could disprove his claim, and from among his statements, pick the true from the false.

Thomson sent out paid organizers whose duty it was to organize Lodges and confer Masonic degrees. The charge for the Craft degrees ranged from 535 up to 550 or more, the usual charge being about 550.

For the Scottish Rite degrees from the Fourth to the Thirty-third the charge was from $135 to $200. Sometimes for this amount were added the Shrine and Templar degrees. Occasionally these organizers would be arrested by the police on the charge of obtaining money under false pretenses. Sometimes convictions were had, but usually these were hard to obtain, for the reason that it was difficult to disprove statements made by Thomson and his organizers. This difficulty existed because of lack of knowledge by Freemasons called to testify in such trials. In 1915 one of these organizers by the name of Ranson was arrested in Saint Louis. The Post Office Inspector in charge at Saint Louis concluded that the United States Government take up the charge of using the mails to defraud.

He assigned his inspector, M, G. Price, to investigate. Price was not able to enter actively upon this work until 1919. Since then and up to the date of the trial he spent practically his entire time making an investigation in the United States, Scotland and France. As a result an indictment was found against Matthew McBlain Thomson, Thomas Perrot, Dominic Bergera and Robert Jamieson, and the case came to trial in the United States District Court at Salt Lake City, Utah. As the regular judge in this district was a Freemason, Judge Wade of Iowa was assigned to try the case and he impressed all who attended the trial with his absolute fairness to both prosecution and defense. As witnesses for the Government there were summoned several ex-members of Thomson’s organization, three officers of various Masonic Grand Bodies of Scotland, and several Brethren representing the regular Masonic organizations in the United States. The former members of Thomson’s organization testified as to methods used and representations made in obtaining members.

The Scotch Brethren testified as to Masonic history and Law in Scotland. They also testified that Mother Kilwinning Lodge had a copy of every Charter issued by her and that she never chartered a Lodge in Marseilles, France; as for the Grand Council of Rites of Scotland, it was considered clandestine and that members of legitimate Lodges in Scotland were forbidden to be members of it or have anything to do with it Masonically.

Two officers of the Supreme Council of Louisiana testified that their Council never granted a Charter to Thomson to work Craft degrees. The Government also was able to show contradictory statements in Thomson’s publications. The jury brought in a verdict of guilty, and the Judge sentenced each of the defendants to serve a term of two years in the penitentiary and pay a fine of $5,000.

Judge Wade, in passing sentence upon the defendants, said:
Nobody can hear this evidence in this case without being convinced, absolutely convinced, that this thing has been a fraudulent scheme from the beginning. I can see where an ignorant person might find some possible excuse for the methods employed in this case. For intelligent people and experienced people to try to convince the Court that this organization and this plan and this work that had been going on is on the square-it can’t be done. Of course now we are living in a time when some of the brightest minds in the country are devoting themselves to securing money by short cuts, by taking advantage of the gullible for their enterprises.

In fact that is one of the dominant crimes of the present time. I know of one state in which in the last two years, within two, there has been sold over twenty-nine million dollars worth of stock in packing houses which never were built, and practically every dollar of the money lost, just by shrewd practice, by trying to get the other fellow’s money in some way without working for it. Now, of course, after all that was stated in this case from the beginning and all through I confess that I was astounded when I heard Mr. Thomson testify that there was no pretense, that there was no record anywhere of a Charter to Marseilles Lodge, on the existence of which lay the right and practically the foundation of all claims of legitimacy on that branch of the case and to have him admit that such a lodge existed only in tradition-I realize that some things can be proven by tradition, but tradition cannot exist with one man tradition must have-before it has any force as proof- such general recognition among men in that particular occupation or relation that it forces itself upon the mind as it truth the record of which has been lost-and it was conceded on the witness stand that so far as this particular thing was concerned there was no record anywhere and no one who was skilled in the history of Freemasonry had ever met any such a tradition so far as the record in this case is concerned, in any history or book or pamphlet or anything else outside of this organization. So was I surprised when I found that the Council of Rites of Scotland which had been one of the chief points urged by these gentlemen, had no record behind it but a few years and it was represented-entirely aside from the question of the origin and history of this organization and those that preceded it-it was represented time and time again without dispute to these poor devils that were led largely by their attraction to an ancient organization and to the rites and rituals of the organization, it was represented to them specifically and it has not been denied that by virtue of their association with this organization the doors of Freemasonry the world over were open to them outside of the United States, which is of course an absurd claim under the evidence in this case.

Then the trip that Bergera made to Europe on the investigation, in view of what transpired according to his own testimony, has all the appearance of being a plan or scheme th the might come back here and state to those whose membership was sought his capacity to enter the Lodges of Europe to support their claim, that the members immediately on getting across the water would have the doors wide open to them. And then after making a trip and going to one or two Lodges or three under peculiar circumstances, in fact never going to the Grand Lodge of Scotland, and that was included in the representation made, that is to say, all Europe was included, never going m the Grand Lodge of Scotland, the Grand Lodge of England and never going to the Grand Lodge of France, whatever it is called, and coming back here no doubt to back up the representation that membership in this organization was opening the doors of all Masonic Orders, all of the regular Masonic orders in Europe-it was a pretense, gentlemen, you can’t come to any other conclusion. If Bergera went over there for the purpose of conferring what these organizers were representing and which is not denied here he certainly would have gone to the Grand Lodge of Scotland or England or France or Germany or somewhere to find out whether the doors would be open to these fellows that were joining their ranks.

But it is not necessary to recite the details. One cannot listen to this evidence without being forced to the conclusion that so far as the representation as to the standing and the brotherhood and the association of people with which they would become immediately affiliated was concerned, that aside entirely from the genealogy of the lodge, nobody can claim that there was any truth in what was said except insofar as they had access to certain Lodges with which Mr. Thomson through his relation had some affiliation. The spectacle of Mr. Thomson going to Switzerland to this great conference, and parading afterwards through the journal a conference where eight men from the entire world were present-that in itself is sufficient to condemn the whole thing and the manner in which this business had been done. is sufficient in itself.
No pretense here on the part of the defendants that this money was kept in any business-like way for the benefit of this organization.

What became of it I don’t know but there was more than a million dollars taken in here, of that there can be no question in view of the prices charged for little printed sheets of paper in the form of diplomas and certificates and things of that kind, entirely, aside from the membership fee. What became of that money is not indicated here. The head of this organization testified before the Court that he didn’t know and in fact had some difficulty in recalling whether there was ever an account of the organization in a bank anywhere in the world. As far as the Secretary is concerned, there is no suggestion of a report indicating that this business was conducted as an honest organization, not a word.

So that, gentlemen, there is only one thing for the Court to do. If it were not for the age of Mr. Thomson at this time there would be a long prison sentence because I think he is the chief actor. I think he is more responsible than anyone else. As far as Bergera is concerned, of course, I cannot understand at all how a man would presume to parade himself as the Treasurer General of the organization of ten thousand members which had received from them in the neighborhood of a million or more dollars and never handle a cent of the money.

I cannot understand it at all, that is all, that any honest man would allow his name to be used in that connection under such condition and the concealment of the methods of doing business and where this money went even up to the present time. I cannot comprehend the whole thing. There is only one thing that saves these men a long prison term. I don’t feel justified in sending any of these men to prison any longer than I do Mr. Thomson. As I say, when it comes to this point, in a trial of the case the charity of the law asserts itself.

Old age and sickness, of course, has a strong appeal to the Court, when it comes to the question of a prison term and I think that the district Attorney has been very generous in his suggestion. This Court hasn’t really any power to impose a penalty here which would be adequate punishment for this thing that has been going on when we step to think of the honest fellows who parted with their fifty or seventy-five or a hundred and fifty dollars for membership in this organization.

So far as the evidence in this case is concerned not one dollar of it was ever used for any, of the business of the society except to carry on this work of getting members.

Not a word of charity or charitable funds or anything of that kind before this Court. I am very much inclined to be lenient in all things. I am inclined to look in a charitable way upon the mistakes of men, but this thing has in it that deliberateness and continuous conduct which sort of overcomes my tendency.

Stand up, gentlemen. The judgment of this Court is that each one of you serve a period of two years in Fort Leavenworth Prison and each one of you pay a fine oi five thousand dollars and costs Brother Evans says in his work that although the public at large knows little of Freemasonry it expects much of Freemasons. In the eyes of those who are not Freemasons one Freemason would have the same standing as another. How could the public know a spurious from a genuine Freemason? No argument is needed to show that the misdeeds of one such spurious claimant can do more damage to the Fraternity than can be overcome by the good conduct of regular Freemasons. Thus, the Fraternity at large has to answer to the public for any bad conduct of both the genuine and the bogus who claim to be members of the Craft. This is indeed a truth which all Freemasons may well afford to take to heart.

Brother Evans says further, on page 7 of his book: Thomson also knew some other things about regular Masons. He knew that they read very little about their own institution, and that, therefore, they are generally ill-informed in matters of Masonic history and law.

Many times his degree peddlers were haled into petty criminal courts to answer to the charge of obtaining money under false pretenses. In as too many instances the prisoner was discharged because the prosecution could not show wherein the fraud lay. The prosecution was dependent, of course, for its proof of fraud upon the testimony of regular Masons. This testimony was often without value and all Masons will know why. Every little victory won by Thomson in the courts gave him just one more argument to make to his dupes.

Thomson also knew that regular Masons in general entertain acute indifference towards as things clandestine. The chances of his being caught up for his gross falsehoods were few, because, first, no one knew enough both about his institutions and regular Masonry to answer him, and, secondly, no one would take the pains to run his lies to earth. These things account, in part, for his enormous success for so many years.

This Thomson case is typical and because of its scope deserves liberal space. Other instances are numerous where the Masonic Institution has defended itself in the courts of law. Volumes two and three, History of Freemasonry in Ohio, 1914, contain many references to the seceders from the Grand Lodge and the lawsuits resulting from “Cerneauism” in that State. On the latter subject see Mackey’s revised History of Freemasonry (volume vi) ; General Albert Pike’s Cerneauism, 1885, his report on Joseph Cerneau, 1886, and other works; A History of Spurious Supreme Councils in the Northern Jurisdiction, William Gardiner, Past Grand Master, Massachusetts, 1863-4, republished 1884; The History of the Peckham Supreme Council, E. T. Carson, 1884; The Ancient Acceptet Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, William Homan, 1905, this latter work containing valuable reports on proceedings against unauthorized conferring of Craft as well as other degrees.

Forrest Adair, 33 , a Brother memorable for his labors for crippled children, spent freely his time and money protecting Masonic interests, as in the rights of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine determined by the Supreme Court of Georgia in 1915, and the Supreme Court of the United States in 1918. A Committee headed by Brother Frank C. Jones on behalf of the Imperial Council continued this work successfully for the Shrine in other States, as in Texas, 1925, and the results will probably, end the matter for the whole country (see Infringing upon Freemasonry).

CIPHER WRITING

Cryptography, or the art of writing in cipher, so as to conceal the meaning of what is written from all except those who possess the key, may be traced to remote antiquity. oe la Guilletiere (Lacedoemon), attributes its origin to the Spartans, and Polybius says that more than two thousand years ago Aeneas Tacitus had collected more than twenty different kinds of cipher which were then in use. Kings and generals communicated their messages to officers in distant provinces, by means of a preconcerted cipher; and the system has always been employed wherever there was a desire or a necessity to conceal from all but those who were entitled to the knowledge the meaning of a written document.

The druids, who were not permitted by the rules of their Order to commit any part of their ritual to ordinary writing, preserved the memory of it by the use of the letters of the Greek alphabet. The Cabalists concealed many words by writing them backward: a method which is still pursued by the French Freemasons. The old alchemists also made use of cipher writing, in order to conceal those processes the knowledge of which was intended only for the adepts. Thus Roger Bacon, who discovered the composition of gunpowder, is said to have concealed the names of the ingredients under a cipher made by a transposition of the letters.

Cornelius Agrippa tells us, in his Occult Philosophy, that the ancients accounted it unlawful to write the mysteries of God with those characters with which profane and vulgar things were written, and he cites Porphyry as saying that the ancients desired to conceal God, and divine virtues, by sensible figures which were visible, yet signified invisible things, and therefore delivered their great mysteries in sacred letters, and explained them by symbolical representations. Porphyry here, undoubtedly, referred to the invention and use of hieroglyphics by the Egyptian priests; but these hieroglyphic characters were in fact nothing else but a form of cipher intended to conceal their instructions from the uninitiated profane.

Peter Aponas, an astrological writer of the thirteenth century, gives us some of the old ciphers which were used by the Cabalists, and among others one alphabet called “the passing of the river,” which is referred to in some of the advanced degrees of Freemasonry.

But we obtain from Agrippa one alphabet in cipher which is of interest to Freemasons, and which he says was once in great esteem among the Cabalists, but which has now, he adds, become so common as to be placed among profane things. He describes this cipher as follows in one Occulta Philosophia (book iii, chapter 3). The twenty-seven characters (including the finals) of the Hebrew alphabet were divided into three classes of nine in each, and these were distributed into nine squares, made by the intersection of two horizontal and two vertical lines, forming the accompanying figure.

In each of these compartments three letters were placed; as, for instance, in the first compartment, the first, tenth, and nineteenth letters of the alphabet ; in the second compartment, the second, eleventh, and twentieth, and so on. The three letters in each compartment were distinguished from each other by dots or accents. Thus, the first compartment, or L, represented the first letter, or N; the same compartment with a dot, thus, L, represented the tenth letter, or J; or with two dots, thus, L it represented the nineteenth letter, or p; and so with the other compartments; the ninth or last representing the ninth, eighteenth, and twenty-seventh letters, accordingly as it was figured without a dot in the center or with one or two.

About the middle of the eighteenth century, the French Freemasons adopted a cipher similar to this in principle, but varied in the details, among which was the addition of four compartments, made by the oblique intersection of two lines in the form of a Saint Andrew’s Cross. This French cipher was never officially adopted by the Freemasons except in the American Royal Arch. It is, however, still recognized in all the Tuilleurs or handbooks of the French Rite. It has become so common as to be placed, as Agrippa said of the original scheme, “among profane things.”

Its use would certainly no longer subserve any purpose of concealment. Rockwell openly printed it in his.

3 2 1
6 5 4
9 8 7

A CIPHER CHART

Ahiman Rezon of Georgia,- and it is often used by those who are not initiated, as a means of amusement. However the use of these curious characters is common on the Royal Arch Ark of the Chapters and is officially recognized by the General Grand Chapter of the United States. In the instructions of the Oliver Ritual, purporting to be used in 1749 at London, there is this explanation, ” You are also, my brethren, entitled as Master Masons to the use of an alphabet which our venerable Grand Master Hiram Abif employed in communications with King Solomon at Jerusalem and King Hiram at Tyre. It is geometriek in its character and is therefore eminently useful to Master Masons in general. By means of two squares and a mallet a brother may make the whole alphabet and even silently convey his ideas to another. That this geometriek alphabet may be easily learned and remembered, I will now entrust you with the key thereof.”

Some present-day Lodge Boards have characters which must be read backwards. Brother Edward H. oring (Transactions, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, volume xxix, pages 243-64) has an article on “The Evolution and development of the Tracing or Lodge Board” in which he states that this reversal took place about the year 1825, and has been perpetuated ever since. On the old-time Lodge Board the dot is not used to indicate the second time the key diagram is used, and thus each character may stand for either of two letters.

Browne and Finch printed books intended only for Freemasons, and not as expositions, invented ciphers for their own use, and supplied their initiated readers with the key. Without a key, their works are un intelligible, except by the art of the decipherer.

Although not used in the first three degrees, the cipher is common in the advanced degrees, of which there is scarcely one which has not had its peculiar cipher. But for the purposes of concealment, the cipher is no longer of any practical use. The art of deciphering has been brought to so great a state of perfection that there is no cipher so complicated as to bid defiance for many hours to the penetrating skill of the experienced decipherer. Hence, the cipher has gone out of general use in Freemasonry as it has among diplomatists, who are compelled to communicate with their respective countries by methods more secret than any that can be supplied by a dispatch written in cipher. Edgar AA Poe has justly said, in his story of The Gold Bug, that ”it may well be doubted whether human ingenuity can construct an enima of the kind, which human ingenuity may not, by proper application, resolve. ”

But there are some interesting instances of the use of a cipher outside the field of fiction (see Masonic Cipher Message, A Mysterious)

CIRCUMSPECTION

A necessary watchfulness is recommended to every man, but in a Freemason it becomes a positive duty, and the neglect of it constitutes a heinous crime. On this subject, the Old Charges of 1722 (vi, 4) are explicit. “You shall be cautious in your words and carriage, that the most penetrating stranger shall not be able to discover or find out what is not proper to be imitated; and sometimes you shall divert a discourse and manage it prudently for the Honor of the Worshipful Fraternity” (Constitutions, 1723, page 55).

CITY OF DAVID

A section in the southern part of Jerusalem, embracing Mount Zion, where a fortress of the Jebusites stood, which David reduced, and where he built a new palace and city, to which he gave his own name.

CITY OF THE GREAT KING

Jerusalem, so called in Psalm xlviii, 2, and by the Savior in Matthew v, 35.

CIVILIZATION AND FREEMASONRY

Those who investigate in the proper spirit the history of Speculative Freemasonry will be strongly impressed with the peculiar relations that exist between the history of Freemasonry and that of civilization. They will find these facts to be patent: that Freemasonry has ever been the result of civilization ; that in the most ancient times the spirit of Freemasonry and the spirit of civilization have always gone together; that the progress of both has been with equal strides; that where there has been no appearance of civilization there has been no trace of Freemasonry; and, finally, that wherever Freemasonry has existed in any of its forms, there it has been surrounded and sustained by civilization, which social condition it in turn elevated and purified, Speculative Freemasonry, therefore, seems to have been a necessary result of civilization, It is, even in its primitive and most simple forms, to be found among no barbarous or savage people. Such a state of society has never been capable of introducing or maintaining its abstract principles of divine truth. But while Speculative Freemasonry is the result of civilization, existing only, in its bosom and never found among barbarous or savage races, it has, by a reactionary law of sociology, proved the means of extending and elevating the civilization to which it originally owed its birth. Civilization has always been progressive. That of Pelasgic Greece was far behind that which distinguished the Hellenic period of the same country. The civilization of the ancient world was inferior to that of the modern, and every century shows an advancement in the moral, intellectual, and social condition of mankind.

But in this progress from imperfection to perfection the influence of those speculative systems that are identical with Freemasonry has always been seen and felt. Let us, for an example, look at the ancient heathen world and its impure religions. While the people of Paganism bowed, in their ignorance, to a many-headed god, or, rather, worshiped at the shrines of many gods, whose mythological history and character must have exercised a pernicious effect on the moral purity of their worshipers, speculative Philosophy, in the form of the Ancient Mysteries, was exercising its influence upon a large class of neophytes and disciples, by giving this true symbolic interpretation of the old religious myths. In the adyta or secret shrines of their temples in Greece and Rome and Egypt, in the sacred caves of India; and in consecrated groves of Scandinavia and Gaul and Britain, these ancient sages were secretly divesting the Pagan faith of its polytheism and of its anthropomorphic deities, and were establishing a pure monotheism in its place, and illustrating, by a peculiar symbolism, the great dogmas-since taught in Freemasonry–of the unity of God and the immortality of the soul.

And in modern times, when the religious thought of mankind, under a better dispensation, has not required this purification, Freemasonry still, in other ways, exerts its influence in elevating the tone of civilization ; for through its working the social feelings have been strengthened, the amenities and charities of life been refined and extended, and, as we have had recent reason to know and see, the very bitterness of strife and the blood-guiltiness of war have been softened and oftentimes obliterated.

We then arrive at these conclusion, namely, that Speculative Freemasonry is a result of civilization, for it exists in no savage or barbarous state of society, but has always appeared with the advent in any country of a condition of civilization, “grown with its growth and strengthened with its strength” ; and, in return, has proved, by a reactionary influence, a potent instrument in extending, elevating, and refining the civilization which gave it birth, by advancing its moral, intellectual, and religious character.

CLOSING

The duty of closing the Lodge is as imperative, and the ceremony as solemn, as that of opening; nor should it ever be omitted through negligence, nor hurried over with haste. Everything should be performed with order and precision, so that no Brother shall go away dissatisfied. From the very nature of our Constitution, a Lodge cannot properly be adjourned. It must be closed either in due form, or the Brethren called off to refreshment. But an adjournment on motion, as in other societies, is unknown to the Order. The Master can alone dismiss the Brethren, and that dismission must take place after a settled usage. In Grand Lodges which meet for several days successively, the session is generally continued from day to day, by calling to refreshment at the termination of each day’s sitting.

CLANDESTINE FREEMASON

One made in or affiliated with a clandestine Lodge. With clandestine Lodges or Freemasons, regular Freemasons are forbidden to associate or converse on Masonic subjects.

CLANDESTINE LODGE

A body of Freemasons or of those improperly claiming to be Freemasons, uniting in a Lodge without the consent of a Grand Lodge, or, although originally legally constituted, continuing to work after its Charter has been revoked, is styled a Clandestine Lodge. Neither Anderson nor Entick employ the word. It was first used in the Book of Constitutions in a note by Noorthouck, on page 239 of his edition (see the Constitutions of 1784).Regular Lodge would be the better term.

CLARE DE GILBERT

Marquis of Pembroke. According to Masonic tradition, said to have been, with Ralph Lord Monthermer. and Walter Gifford, Archbishop of York, given charge of the Operative Masons in 1272

CLARE, MARTIN

A London schoolmaster and a celebrated Freemason of England in the eighteenth century. The date of Brother Clare’s birth is not on record, but it is known that his death occurred May 19, 1751, Martin Clare served the Fraternity as Grand Steward in 1734, as Junior Warden in 1735, Deputy Grand Master in 1741, continuing his activity in the work of the Grand Lodge up to 1749. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on March 27, 1735. He was, in 1736, Master of the Lodge at the Shakespeare’s Head, Saint James, which was constituted in 1721, then No. 4, and later became the Lodge of Friendship, No. 6. The Minutes of the Lodge from January, 1738, to December, 1749, were recorded in his handwriting.

He was distinguished for zeal and intelligence in Freemasonry, and it has been pretty well established that he was the author of A Defense of Masonry, which was issued in 1730 in answer to Prichard’s Masonry Dissected, and which was reproduced in the 1738 Edition of the Constitutions.

Brother Henry Sadler, in his Thomas Dunckerley, his Life, Labors and Letters, tells on page 114 that on January 25, 1742, ”The Master proposed the Revival of the Lectures in this place and this seeming universally agreeable to the Society, his Worship requested the D.G.M., to entertain the Lodge this Day Fortnight at nine o’clock and the Subject was left to his own choice. After him Brother Wagg promised to read this Day Month.” On page 114, Brother Sadler says, “The scientific lectures had been omitted for several months past. The word Revival was originally written Revisal by Clare, but as the proceedings were transcribed by him, from rough minutes, probably taken by some one else, he doubtless mistook the word and afterwards altered the s into a v, although at first sight and taken without the context the word might now easily be mistaken for Revisal.

This trifling error may have given rise to the tradition that Clare revised the Craft Lectures by request of the Grand Lodge; I am not, however, aware of the existence of the least evidence or indication that he did anything of the kind.”

Clare’s oration before the Grand Lodge on December 11, 1735, was translated into several foreign languages. A reprint of it is in the Pocket Companion and History of Freemasons for 1754, also in Oliver’s Masonic Institutes, reprints of the Lodge of Research at Leicester, etc. (see the Transactions, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, volume iv, pages 33–li). Het translated into English a work which had been published the preceding year, in Dublin, under the title of Relation Apologique et Historique de la Société des Franc-Maçons, or A Defense and Historical Account of the Society of Freemasons.

The Freemason of June 6, 1925, says: “The second name in the roster of Old King’s Arms Lodge, No. 28, London, is that of Sir Cecil Wray’s Senior Warden in 1730—Martin Clare ; one of the greatest worthies the Craft in England has known, who represented the Lodge on the Board of Grand Stewards in 1734, became Junior Grand Warden in the following year, and in 1741 was appointed Deputy Grand Master to the Earl of Morton. There seems little doubt that he was initiated in the Lodge, and, although he never sat in the Master’s Chair, the Minute Books contain many references which testify to his love for it and to the great services he rendered to it. When Sir Cecil Wray was invited to become the Master he accepted on condition that Martin Clare would undertake the duties of Senior Warden. Many of the Lodge Minutes are in his handwriting, and those Minutes are certainly a model, both in penmanship and composition, of what such chronicles should be. He frequently lectured at the Old King’s Arms Lodge. It was the custom for many years for his Oration to be read in the Lodge annually.

He was also the author of numerous lectures or discourses dealing with Freemasonry which he delivered at various Lodges, and the Minutes intimate his keenness in promoting discussions on matters of Masonic interest. The first act of his, on rejoining the Lodge in 1747, after a short absence, was to revive the custom of lectures and papers, which he had also inaugurated in the Lodge of Friendship. Clare presided on, at least, four Communications of the Grand Lodge.”

CLARENCE, H. R. H. THE DUKE OF

afterward King William IV, was initiated in Lodge 86, Plymouth, on March 9, 1796.

CLASSIFICATION OF FREEMASONS

Oliver says, in his Dictionary of Symbolical Masonry, that ancient Masonic tradition informs us that the Speculative and Operative Freemasons who were assembled at the building of the Temple were arranged in nine classes, under their respective Grand Masters ; namely 30,000 Entered Apprentices, under their Grand Master Adoniram ; 80,000 Fellow-Crafts, under Hiram Abif ; 2,000 Mark Men under Stolkyn; 1,000 Master Masons under Mohabin; 600 Mark Masters, under Ghiblim; 24 Architects, under Joabert; 12 Grand Architects, under Adoniram ; 45 Excellent Masons, under Hiram Abif; 9 Super-Excellent Masons, under Tito Zadok; besides the Ish Sabbal or laborers. The tradition is, however, rather apocryphal, a matter of doubt.

CLAVEL, F. T. BEGUE

An abbé. A French Masonic Writer, who published, in 1842, a Histoire pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie et des Sociétés Secrétes Anciennes et Modernes or Picturesque History of Freemasonry and of Ancient and Modern Secret Societies. This work contains a great amount of interesting and valuable information, notwithstanding many historical inaccuracies, especially in reference to the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite, of which the author was an adversary. For the publication of the work without authority he was suspended by the Grand Orient for two months, and condemned to pay a fine, clavel appealed to the intelligence of the Fraternity against this sentence. In 1844, he commenced the publication of a Masonic Journal called the Grand Orient, the title of which he subsequently changed to the Orient. As he had not obtained the consent of the Grand Orient, he was agaiq brought before that body, and the sentence of perpetual exclusion from the Grand Orient pronounced against him.

Rebold says that it was the act of a faction, and obtained by unfair means. It was not sustained by the judgment of the Craft in France, with whom Clavel gained reputation and popularity. Notwithstanding the Masonic literary labors of Clavel, an account of the time of his birth, or of his death, appears to be obscure. His desire seemed to be to establish as history, by publication, those views which he personally entertained and formed ; gathered from sources of doubtful character, he desired they should not be questioned in the future, semel pro semper, once for all.

CLAY

See Chalk, Charcoal, and Clay

CLAY GROUND

In the clay ground between Succoth and Zeredatha, Hiram Abif cast all the sacred vessels of the Temple, as well as the pillars of the porch. This spot was about thirty-five miles in a northeast direction from Jerusalem ; and it is supposed that Hiram selected it for his foundry, because the clay which abounded there was, by its great tenacity, peculiarly fitted for making molds. The Masonic tradition on this subject is sustained by the authority of Scripture (see First. Kings vii, 46, and Second Chronicles iv, 17). Morris, in his Freemasonry in the Holy Land, gives the following interesting facts in reference to this locality. “A singular fact came to light under the investigations of my assistant at Jerusalem. He discovered that the jewelers of that city, at the present day, use a particular species of brown, arenaceous clay in making molds for casting small pieces in brass, etc. Inquiring whence this clay comes, they reply, ‘From Seikoot, about two days’ journey north-east of Jerusalem.’ Here, then, is a satisfactory reply to the question, Where was the ‘clay ground’ of Hiram’s foundries? It is the best matrix-clay existing within reach of Hiram Abif, and it is found only in ‘the clay ground between Succoth and Zeredatha’; and considerable as was the distance, and extremely inconvenient as was the locality, so important did that master-workman deem it, to secure a sharp and perfect mold for his castings, that, as the Biblical record informs us, he established his furnaces there.”

CLAY, HENRY

American statesman and orator; born April 12, 1777; died June 29, 1852. At twenty-two elected delegate to Kentucky Constitutional Convention; at twenty-six to legislature, at twenty-nine United States Senator, at thirty-four Speaker of House of Representatives, Secretary of State 1825–9. “An active, zealous Mason, as the records of the Grand Lodge (Kentucky) abundantly prove” (Centennial History, Grand Secretary H. B. Grant, 1900, page 72). Elected Grand Master, August 29, 1820. He advocated a General Grand Lodge of the United States and at the Washington (D.C.) conference, March 9, 1822, offered the resolutions unanimously adopted favoring his views.

CLEAN HANDS

Clean hands are a symbol of purity. The Psalmist says “that he only shall ascend into the hill of the Lord, or shall stand in his holy place, who hath clean hands and a pure heart.” Hence, the washing of the hands is an outward sign of an internal purification; and the Psalmist says in another place, “I will wash my hands in innocence. And I will encompass thine altar, Jehovah.” In the Ancient Mysteries the washing of the hands was always an introductory ceremony to the initiation; and, of course, it was used symbolically to indicate the necessity of purity from crime as a qualification of those who sought admission into the sacred rites ; and hence, on a temple in the Island of Crete, this inscription was placed: “Cleanse your feet, wash your hands, and then enter.” Indeed, the washing of hands, as symbolic of purity, was among the ancients a peculiarly religious rite. No one dared to pray to the gods until he had cleansed his hands. Thus, Homer (in the Iliad vi, 266) makes Hector say:

I dread with unwashed hands to bring
My incensed wine to Jove an offering.

In a similar spirit of religion, Aeneas, when leaving burning Troy, refuses to enter the Temple of Ceres until his hands, polluted by recent strife, had been washed in the living stream (see the Aeneid11, 718).

Me bello e tanto digressum et coede recenti,
Attrectare nefas, donec me flumine vivoAbiuero.
In me, now fresh from war and recent strife,
‘Tis impious the sacred things to touch,
Till in the living stream mysef 1 bathe.

The same practice prevailed among the Jews, and a striking instance of the symbolism is exhibited in that well-known action of Pilate, who, when the Jews damored for Jesus that they might crucify him, appeared before the people, and, having taken water, washed his hands, saying at the same time, “I am innocent of the blood of this just man, see ye to it” (see Matthew xxvii, 24).

The white gloves worn by Freemasons as a part of their clothing, as well as the white gloves presented to the initiate in the Continental and Latin Rites, allude to this symbolizing of clean hands ; and what in some of the advanced Degrees has been called Masonic Baptism is nothing else but the symbolizing, by a ceremony, this doctrine of clean hands as the sign of a pure heart (see Baptism Masonic, and Lustration).

CLEAVE

The word cleave is twice used in Freemasonry, and each time in an opposite sense. First, in the sense of adhering, where the sentence in which it is employed is in the Past Master’s Degree, and is taken from the 137th Psalm: “Let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth;” second, in the Master’s Degree, where, in the expression “The flesh cleaves from the bone,” it has the intransitive meaning of to separate, and is equivalent to “the flesh parts, or separates, itself from the bone.” In this latter use the word is less common, and in the above expression is used only technically as a Masonic term.

CLECHE

Pronounced kleesh-a, and in heraldry usually described as a cross charged with another of the same figure, but, whose color is that of the field, but the reader may understand it as being a cross designed to show merely a border or outline or having the ends of the four arms enlarged, one or the other.

CLEFTS OF THE ROCKS

The whole of Palestine is mountainous, and these mountains abound in deep clefts or caves, which were anciently places of refuge to the inhabitants in time of war, and were often used as lurking places for robbers. It is, therefore, strictly in accordance with geographical truth that the statement, in relation to the concealment of certain persons in the clefts of the rocks, is made in the Third Degree (see the latter part of the article Caverns).

CLEMENT AUGUSTUS

Born 1700; died 1766. Duke of Bavaria and Elector of Cologne, a Freemason until 1738 when, at the publication of Pope Clement XII’S Bull, he withdrew from the Masonic Order openly although said to have privately maintained affiliation with it and to have founded the Society of Mopses.

CLEMENT V

Before his election, as Pope of Rome, known as Bertrand d’ Agoust, or Bertrand de Gôt, Archbishop of Bordeaux. As the price of the papal crown, said to have made an agreement with Philippe le Bel for the destruction of the Knights Templar. It is also recorded that either Jacques de Molay, or Guy, the Dauphin d’Auvergne, when at the stake, summoned Clement V before God in forty days. A few days after the execution, March 11, 1314, an illness began for the Pope, ending in his death on April 20, 1314.

CLEMENT XII

A Pope, who assumed the pontificate on the 12th of August, 1730, and died on the 6th of February, 1740. On the 24th of April, 1738, he published his celebrated Bull of Excommunication, entitled In Eminenti A postolatus Specula, in which we find these words: “For which reason the temporal and spiritual communities are enjoined, in the name of holy obedience, neither to enter the society of Freemasons, to disseminate its principles, to defend it, nor to admit nor conceal it within their houses or palaces, or elsewhere, under pain of excommunication ipso facto, for all acting in contradiction to this, and from which the pope only can absolve the dying.” Clement was a bitter persecutor of the Masonic Order, and hence he caused his Secretary of State, the Cardinal Firrao, to issue on the 14th of January, 1739, a still more stringent edict for the Papal States, in which death and confiscation of property, without hope of mercy, was the penalty or, as the original has it, “sotto Pena della morte, e confiscazione de beni da incorressi, irremissibilmente senz a speranzs di grazia.”

CLEMENT XIV

Pope of Rome, previously having the name of J. V. A. Ganganelli, who suppressed the Jesuits by his order of June 14, 1773, although it was later on revived by a successor.

CLERKS OF STRICT OBSERVANCE

Known also as the Spiritual Branch of the Templars, or Clerici Ordinis Templarii. This was a schism from the Order or Rite of Strict Observance; and was founded by Starck in 1767. The members of this Rite established it as a rival of the latter system. They claimed a pre-eminence not only over the Rite of Strict Observance, but also over all the Lodges of ordinary Freemasonry, and asserted that they alone possessed the true secrets of the Order, and knew the place where the treasures of the Templars were deposited (for a further history of this Rite, see Starck). The Rite consisted of seven Degrees, viz.:

  • 1, 2, and 3. Symbolic Freemasonry.
  • 4. Junior Scottish Freemason, or Jungschotte.
  • 5. Scottish Master, or Knight of Saint Andrew.
  • 6. Provincial Capitular of the Red Cross.
  • 7. Magus, or Knight of Purity and Light.

Clavel ( Histoire Pittoresque, or Picturesque History, page186) gives different names to some of these Degrees. This last was subdivided into five sections, as follows:

  • I. Knight Novice of the third year.
  • II. Knight Novice of the fifth year.
  • III. Knight Novice of the seventh year.
  • IV. Levite, and V. Priest.

Ragon errs in calling this the Rite of Lax Observance unless he said it satirically.

CLERMONT, CHAPTER OF

On the 24th of November, 1754, the Chevalier de Bonneville established in Paris a Chapter of the Advanced Degrees under this name, which was derived from what Doctor Mackey deemed the Jesuitical Chapter of Clermont. This society was composed of many distinguished persons of the court and city, who, disgusted with the dissensions of the Parisian Lodges, determined to separate from them. They adopted the Templar system, which had been created at Lyons, in 1743, and their Rite consisted at first of but six Degrees, namely,

  • 1, 2, 3. Saint John’s Freemasonry.
  • 4. Knight of the Eagle.
  • 5. Illustrious Knight or Templar.
  • 6. Sublime Illustrious Knight.

But soon after that time the number nf these Degrees was greatly extended. The Baron de Hund received the advanced Degrees in this Chapter, and derived from them the idea of the Rite of Strict Observance, which he subsequently established in Germany.

CLERMONT, COLLEGE OF

college of Jesuits in Paris, where James II, after his flight from England, in 1688, resided until his removal to St. Germain.

During his residence there, he is said to have sought the establishment of a system of Freemasonry, the object of which should be the restoration of the House of Stuart to the throne of England. Relics of this attempted system are still to be found in many of the advanced Degrees, and the Chapter of Clermont, subsequently organized in Paris, appears to have had some reference to it.

CLERMONT, COUNT OF

Louis of Bourbon, prince of the blood royal and Count of Clermont, was elected by sixteen of the Paris Lodges Perpetual Grand Master, for the purpose of correcting the numerous abuses which had crept into French Freemasonry. He did not, however, fulfil the expectations of the French Freemasons; for the next year he abandoned the supervision of the Lodges, and new disorders arose. He still, however, retained the Grand Mastership, and died in 1771, being succeeded by his nephew, the Duke of Chartres.

CLINTON, DE WITT

A distinguished statesman, who was born at Little Britain, New York, March 2, 1769, and died on the 11th of February, 1828. He entered the Masonic Order in 1793, and the next year was elected Master of his Lodge. In 1806, he was elevated to the position of Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New York, and in 1814, to that of Grand Master of the Grand Encampment. In 1816, he was elected General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of the United States. In 1813, he became unwittingly complicated with the Spurious Consistory, established by Joseph Cerneau in the city of New York, but he took no active part in its proceedings, and soon withdrew from all connection with it. When the anti-Masonic excitement arose in this country in 1826, in consequence of the affair of William Morgan, whom the Freemasons were accused of having put to death, Brother Clinton was Governor of the State of New York, and took all the necessary measures for the arrest of the supposed criminals. But, although he offered a liberal reward for their detection, he was charged by thp Anti-Masons with official neglect and indifference, charges which were undoubtedly false and malicious. Spenser, the special attorney of the State, employed for the prosecution of the offenders, went w far as to resign his office, and to assign, as a mason for his resignation, the want of sympathy and support on the part of the Executive. But all of the accusations and insinuations are properly to be attributed to political excitement, Anti Masonry having been adopted soon after its origin by the politicians as an engine for their advancement to office. Brother Clinton was an honorable man and a true patriot, an ardent and devoted Freemason. (For details as to his farsighted and successful activity in the foundation of the Public School System in New York City and State see Public Schools.)

CLOTHED

A Freemason in the United States of America is said to be properly clothed when he wears white leather gloves, a white apron, and the jewel of his Masonic rank.

The gloves are now often, but improperly, dispensed with, except on public occasions. “No Mason is permitted to enter a Lodge or join in its labors unless he is properly clothed.” Lenning, speaking of Continental Freemasonry, under the article Kleidung in his Lexicon, says that the clothing of a Freemason consists of apron, gloves, sword, and hat. In the York and American Rites, the sword and hat are used only in the Degrees of chivalry. In the catechisms of the early eighteenth century the Master of a Lodge, was described as clothed in a yellow jacket and a blue pair of breeches, in allusion to the brass top and steel legs of a pair of compasses. After the middle of the century, he was said to be “clothed in the old colors, namely, purple, crimson, and blue”; and the reason assigned for it was “because they are royal, and such as the ancient kings an d princes used to wear. ”

The actual dress of a Master Mason was, however, a full suit of black, with white neck-cloth, apron, gloves, and stockings; the buckles being of silver, and the jewels being suspended from a white ribbon by way of collar.

(For the clothing and decorations of the different Degrees, see Regalia. )

Brother Preston (Illustrations of Freemasonry, 1772, page 235) describes the dress of the Brethren when “properly clothed” for public processions. He says “All the Brethren, who walk in procession, should observe, as much as possible an uniformity in their dress. Decent mourning, with white stockings, gloves and aprons, is most suitable and becoming; and no person ought to be distinguished with a jewel, unless he is an officer of one of the Lodges invited to attend in form, The officers of such Lodges should be ornamented with white sashes and hatbands; as also the officers of the Lodge to whom the dispensation is granted, who should likewise be distinguished with white rods.”

One of the earliest accounts of Masonic clothing and regalia in a procession on Saint John’s Day is recorded in Faulkner’s Dublin Journal (January 10-4, 1743–l, and on pages 98-9, Freemasonry in Ireland, Brothers Lepper and Crossle, 1925):

Saint John’s Day, celebrated by the Lodge in Youghall (Ireland), No. 21.

lmprimis,
….The first Salutation on the Quay of Youghall, upon their coming out of their Lodge Chamber, was, the Ships firing their guns With their colors flying.
….Secondly. The first appearance was, a Concert of Musick with two proper Centennials with their Swords drawn.
….Thirdly. Two Apprentices, bare-headed, one with twenty four Inch Gage, the other a Common Gavel.
….Fourthly. The Royal Arch carried by two excellent Masons.
….Fifthly. Master with all his proper Instruments, his Rod gilt with Gold, his Deputy on his left with the Square and Compass.
….Sixthly. The two Wardens with their Truncheons gilt in like manner.
….Seventhly. The two Deacons with their Rods gilt after the same manner.
….Eighthly. Two Excellent Masons, one bearing a Level, and the other a Plum Rule.
….Ninthly. Then appeared all the rest most gallantly dressed, following by Couples, each of them having a Square hanging about his Neek to a blue Ribbon. From the Quay, they took the whole length of the Town, the Streets being well lined, the Gentlemen and Ladies out of their Windows constantly saluting them, until they went to Church. The two Sentinels stood at the Pues, holding the Doors open, until the Whole went in. And after Divine Service, came in the same Order, to their House of Entertainment, where at the Approach of Evening, the Windows were illuminated with Candles, and the Street with Bonfires. They were greatly applauded, and allowed to be the finest and most magnificent Sight that was ever seen in this Country.

An early reference to the clothing of the Brethren in the United States is in the By-laws adopted by the Lodge at Boston, Massachusetts, on November 14 and October 24, 1733. The thirteenth and fourteenth regulations read es follows:

Xlllthly. The Master of this Lodge, or in absence, the Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master or Wardens, when there is a private Lodge ordered to be held for a Making shall be obliged to give all the Members timely notice of the time and place in writing where such Lodge is held that they may give their attendance and every member being duly warned as aforesaid and neglecting to attend on such private Making shall not be Clothed.

XIVthly. No member that is absent from the Lodge of a Lodge night when there is a Making, shall have the Benefit of being Clothed for that time.

Brother Melvin M. Johnson comments on the foregoing rules in his Beginnings of Freemasonry in America (page 107), “‘Being Clothed’ refers to the very ancient custom, now forgotten, of requiring the candidate to furnish each member present with an apron and a pair of white gloves” (see Clothing the Lodge).

At a celebration of the Festival of Saint John the Baptist, reported in the Boston Gazette for July 2, 1739, and also given by Brother Johnson in the above work (page 222) we learn that, At three in the Afternoon They assembled at the House of their Brother John Wagbom, from whence they walked in Procession to His Excellency’s House, properly Clothed, and Distinguished, with Badges, and other Implement pertaining to the several Orders and Degrees of the Society, proceeded by a complete band of Music consisting of Trumpets, Kettle Drums, etc.

The American Apollo, a magazine printed in Boston, had an account of the procession in verse by Joseph Green, who tells us of the visit to the House of Brother Wagborn,

Here, having drank and giv’n the sign,
By which he was oblig’d to join,
From hence in leather apron drest
With tinsel ribbons on their breast
In pompous order march’d the train,
First two, then three, then two again.

The lines wind up with an allusion to the decorated ship, Hallowell, of which Brother Alexander French was part owner and in command. This vessel, trimmed with red baize on top and with colors hoisted, was given a peculiarly Masonic significance.

And on the mizzen peak was spread,
A leather apron, lin’d with red.
The men on board all day were glad,
And drank and smoked like any mad.
And from her sides three times did ring
Great guns, as loud as anything,
But at the setting of the sun,
Precisely ceas’d the noise of gun,
All ornaments were taken down,
Jack, ensign, pendant, and Apron.

A further mention of the clothing is seen in the lines written by Green to burlesque the celebration of Saint John the Evangelist’s Day at Boston, December 27, 1749. These lines are entitled Entertainment for a Winter’s Evening, and alluding to the public procession to and from church of the Freemasons the author speaks of them as “in scarlet aprons dressed,” see the verse in this work under the heading of Sermons, Masonic. We need not speculate too curiously about the use of scarlet aprons at the time.

The suggestion may however be offered that the apron so lined was capable of being used either side to the front according to the Body or Degree in which the wearer participated. Aprons in certain cases are still so worn though not usually in connection with the first three Degrees of the Craft (see also Regalia).

The modern regalia and clothing, as for example those approved by the Constitutions and Regulations of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, as shown in the Revision adopted in 1918, may here be appropriately given. The references to saltire, or saltier, being an expression in heraldry meaning cross-wise, as in the letter x.

The Jewels of the Grand Officers shall be as follows:

That of the Grand Master, the Compasses extended to 45 , with the segment of a circle at the points and a gold plate included, on which is represented an eye, eradicated within a triangle, also eradicated.

That of the Deputy Grand Master the Compasses and square united, with a five-pointed star in the center.

That of the District Grand Masters, the Compasses and Square united, with a five-pointed star in the center upon which shall be superimposed a Roman letter D.

Those of the District Deputy Grand Masters, the Compasses extended to 45 , with the segment of a circle at the points and a crescent in the center.

  • Senior Grand Warden, the Level.
  • Junior Grand Warden, the Plumb.
  • Grand Treasurer, a chased Key.
  • Grand Secretary, two Pens in saltire tied by a ribbon.
  • Grand Chaplains, a Book within a Triangle, surmounting a glory.
  • Grand Marshal, two Rods in saltire tied by a ribbon.
  • Grand Lecturers, an open Book upon the Square and Compasses.
  • Grand Deacons, a Dove and Olive Branch.
  • Grand Stewards, a Cornucopia.
  • Grand Sword Bearer, two Swords in saltire.
  • Grand Standard Bearer, a Banner.
  • Grand Pursuivants, a Rod and a Sword saltire-wise.
  • Grand Organist, a Lyre.
  • Grand Tyler, a Sword.

Each Past Grand Officer may be distinguished by the jewel prescribed for the office he has filled, with this difference, that such jewel shall be fixed within a circle or oval, of gold or metal gilt. It shall be worn over the left breast, pendant to a purple ribbon or metal chain.

It may be suspended from the neck by a purple ribbon when another authorized jewel is worn over the left breast.

The Jewel of each Grand Officer, with the exception of the District Deputy Grand Masters, shall be enclosed within a wreath composed of a sprig of Acacia and an ear of Wheat. The Collars of the Grand Officers shall be chains of gold or metal gilt.

The Apron. of the Grand Master shall be of white lambskin, lined with purple, ornamented with the blazing Sun, embroidered in gold in the center; on the edging the pomegranate and lotus, with the seven-eared wheat at each corner, and also on the fall,-all in gold embroidery, the fringe of gold bullion, with purple edging and strings.

The Apron of the Deputy Grand Master and of a District Grand Master shall be of the same material and lining, having the emblem of his office in gold embroidery in the center, and the pomegranate and lotus alternately embroidered in gold on the edging.

The emblem of the District Grand Master shall be within a double circle bearing the name of his District.

The Aprons of the other Grand Officers shall be of white lambskin, lined with purple ; edging of purple three and a half inches wide; with purple strings; ornamented with gold, having the emblems of office, in gold, in the center.

Each officer of a Lodge shall wear a blue velvet collar trimmed with silver lace, or a white metal chain collar upon blue ribbon of such pattern or patterns as shall be approved by the Grand Master, from which shall be suspended the jewel of the office in silver. The aprons may bear the emblems of the offices and a fringe of silver.

The Jewels of the officers of a Lodge shall be as follows:

That of the Master, the Square; Senior Warden, the Level; Junior Warden, the Plumb; Treasurer, two Keys in saltire; Secretary, two Pens in saltire; Chaplain, the Bible within a circle; Marshal, a Baton within a square ; Deacons, the Square and Compasses united within a circle; Stewards, a Cornucopia within a circle; Organist, a Lyre within a circle; Inside Sentinel, two Swords in saltire within a circle; Tyler, a Sword within a circle.

The Jewel of a Past Master shall be the blazing Sun within the Square and Compasses extended on a Quadrant. This Jewel may be of gold or silver, and shall be worn over the left breast, pendant to a blue ribbon or metal chain. It may be suspended from the neck by a blue ribbon when another authorized Jewel is worn over the left breast.

The Apron of a Master Mason shall be a plain white lambskin, fourteen inches wide by twelve inches deep.

The Apron may be adorned with sky-blue lining and edging, and three rosettes of the same color. No other color shall be allowed, and no other ornament shall be worn except by officers and past officers.

The Grand Encampment of Knights Templar and the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons made a public procession in the City of New York on September 16, 1841. The notice giving the order of the procession as well as the instructions for the clothing of the Brethren is of a considerable degree of interest and appears in the History of the Origin and Development of the Royal Arch Degree, by Charles A. Conover, 1926. That portion which refers to tho clothing of the Brethren is as follows:

All Templars to appear in the following uniform. Dress Black, black stock and gloves, plain black scarf over the left shoulder; Chapeau with black satin cockade, black apron of triangular form, and straight sword. Officers and members of the Grand Encampment to wear the trimmings of the Chapeau, apron and sword of Gold, all others of Silver. No feathers to be worn by any one. Royal Arch Masons ro appear in black hat and stock, dark coat, white vest, pantaloons, and gloves, whits apron, trimmed with scarlet, scarlet sash over the left shoulder and black cane. Presiding Officers of Chapters in Chapeaus trimmed with scarlet and gold. Master Masons to appear in black hat and stock, dark coat, white vest, pantaloons, and gloves, with white apron trimmed with blue, blue sash over the left shoulders .

The Master of each Lodge to wear Chapeau trimmed with blue and silver, and the Gavel in his hand.

The three Committees appointed by the three Grand Bodies are to act as Marshals to their respective Grand Bodies in the uniform of their constituents, with Chapeaus and swords, and are to be distinguished by a thin white rod and acorn, with bow of ribbon of three colors (Blue, Scarlet, and Black), and a Rosette of five inches, of the same three colors on the left breast. Each subordinate Body will appoint two Marshals to assist the Grand Marshals, to be distinguished by a truncheon or scroll, trimmed with ribbon of the color of his grade.

An early reference to Aprons is in the Book of Constitutions (1738, page 153). On March 17, 1731, it was resolved that “Masters and Wardens of particular Lodges may line their white Leather Aprons with “white Silk, and may hang their Jewels at white Ribbons about their Necks.” Article xxiii also records that “The Stewards for the Year were allowed to have Jewels of Silver, tho not guilded, pendent to Red Ribbons about their Necks, to bear White Rods, and to line their White Leather Aprons with Red Silk. Former Stewards were also allowed to wear the same Sort of Aprons, White and Red.”

Laurence Dermott (Ahiman Rezon, 1764) gives a regulation of Grand Lodge that blue or purple, is the peculiar badge of Grand Officers. However, he states that he “is certain that every member of the Grand Lodge has an undoubted right to wear purple, blue, white or crimson.” From this time blue seems the Masonic color except for Grand Stewards, who wear crimson.

Another exception was the Grand Lodge at York, which used only white and pink; no other color is named. In the schedule of January 1, 1776, of Grand Lodge Regalia, we read ”one Grand Master’s Apron, five Aprons lined with pink silk and ten common Aprons,” and again in 1779, “An Apron for the Grand Master, four Aprons lined with pink silk, five Aprons.”

None of the early Aprons had tassels and Brother Fred J. W. Crowe declares it is certain that these were never intended, as is so frequently asserted, to represent the two great Pillars. He says they are neither more nor less than the ends of broadened strings ornamented with fringe and that the fringe on the Apron is coeval with fringing the ends of strings.

Down to the Union in 1813, many engraved, painted and embroidered Aprons were in common use. At the Union, however, the clothing under the United Grand Lodge of England was clearly laid down. The same Apron was sometimes used for the Craft and Royal Arch during the eighteenth century, the distinguishing mark being the binding of purple and crimson when used for the latter.

The Collar was originally a simple ribbon supporting the jewel of office. This ribbon was white in 1727, except in the case of Stewards, when it was red.

But in 1731 it was ordered that Grand Officers wear their jewels of gold suspended from blue ribbons.

From the ribbon has gradually evolved the broad, decorative collar worn so generally in Great Britain.

Gloves were a part of the Freemason’s clothing from the earliest time, but gauntlets, although Brother Crowe says these were undoubtedly worn before the Union, were only comparatively recently authoritatively laid down as a part of the regalia.

In Scotland, the clothing of Grand Lodge and of Provincial and District Grand Lodges is of thistlegreen, doubtless from the color used in the national Order of the Thistle; but private Lodges may select any color they please, and may also add a considerable amount of ornament and embellishment, which is usually on the fall or flap. This fall in Scottish Aprons is circular, not triangular as in English and American Aprons. The Grand Lodge in 1736 ordered that the jewels of the Grand Master and Wardens shall be worn “at a green ribbon.” Embroidered Aprons with Officers’ emblems were introduced in 1760, and in 1767, the “garters,” which in the days of knee-breeches formed part of the regalia, and the ”ribbands for the jewels” were ordered to be renewed. Sashes for office-bearers were adopted in 1744, jewels in 1760. The Lodge of Dundee wore white Aprons in 1733, and the Lodge of Edinburgh in 1739 ordered “a new blew ribband for the whole five jewels.”

In Ireland, most Lodges wear very simple cotton Aprons, edged with blue, and bearing the number of the Lodge, but at their annual Festivals, the Brethren wear lambskin Aprons almost identical with the English Master Mason’s Apron, except that there is a narrow silver braid in the center of the ribbon. The Grand Lodge Clothing is of the same color, with gold fringe, but the bottom of the fall is squared off, and curiously enough, there are no tassels. The rank of the wearer is indicated by the number and width of the rows of gold braid. Although the Grand Lodge of Ireland was formed in 1725 or earlier, there has never been any regulation as to Clothing in its Constitutions, the only authority, until quite recently, being in a book entitled Clothing and Insignia, with colored plates, first published in 1860. Brother F. C. Crossle says that in days gone by the Worshipful Master in many parts of Ireland, if not everywhere, was always attired in a red cloak and top hat, and this custom had obtained even within the memory of living Brethren, although now obsolete.

The only jewels which may be worn in English Craft Lodges are those of Craft and Royal Arch Masonry, including Past Master, Past Zerubbabel, Grand and Provincial Lodge jewels, Presentation jewels of Craft or Royal Arch offices, Founders’ jewels and Charity jewels. All others are illegal.

In Denmark all the Brethren wear small trowels; that of the Entered Apprentice is of rough silver on a string of leather, that of the Fellow Craft of polished silver on white silk, that of the Master Mason of gold on a blue ribbon. Brethren who have taken Degrees above the seventh, wear a special attire in Bodies of their own Order, which is not allowed to be seen by Brethren of the lower Degrees.

In the case of the Grand Lodges of Norway and Sweden, the Clothing is practically identical with that of Denmark. It also includes a Collarette, trowel, and an ivory key. The latter is still worn in many Grand Lodges as it was once in England, and a reference to it is found in some old ”catch” questions of the Fraternity. In Sweden, the brotherhood is so highly esteemed, that it has its own Order of Knighthood, that of Charles XIII, and membership of the higher Degrees also carries civil nobility.

Under the Grand Orient of France the Aprons are elaborately embroidered or painted, and edged sometimes with crimson or with blue. Blue embroidered Sashes, lined with black for the Third Degree, are in common use.

In ltaly, the Entered Apprentice Apron is a plain white skin; the Fellow Craft has one edged and lined with green, and with a square printed in the center; the Master Mason wears one lined and edged with crimson, bearing the square and compasses. Master Masons also wear a handsome sash of green silk, edged with red, richly embroidered in gold, and lined with black silk on which are embroidered the emblems of mortality in silver. Members of the Third Degree can wear more elaborately ornamented Aprons.

In Greece, Master Masons formerly wore silk or satin Aprons, painted or embroidered, and edged with crimson, with a beautiful sash similar to that worn in Italy, but of blue and red instead of green; later on the clothing became identical with that worn in England.

In Holland, a custom similar to that in Scotland prevails, and each Lodge selects its own color or colors for the clothing and the ribbons to which seals are attached. Considerable additional ornament in embroidery, painting, fringes, etc., is freely employed at the pleasure of the Lodge or the individual.

In Belgium, the Grand Lodge clothing is of light blue silk bordered with gold fringe, and without tassels. The collars are embroidered in gold with the jewel of the office to which they pertain, and with acacia and other emblems.

In Switzerland, under the Grand Lodge Alpina, the clothing is simple. The Entered Apprentice Apron is of white leather, and only varied from the English one in having the lower corners round. That of Fellow Craft has blue silk edging and strings. The Master Mason Apron has a wider border, with three rosettes on the body of the Apron, whilst the flap is entirely covered with blue silk ; a small blue sash, with a white rosette at the point is also worn with this. The Apron of a Grand Officer is edged with crimson, and has neither tassels nor rosettes, except in the case of the Grand Master, distinguished by three crimson rosettes; the collar is of crimson watered ribbon, edged with white, from which is suspended the jewel, a gold square and compasses, enclosing a star, on which is enameled the white Geneva Cross on a red field, the shield of the Republic. Each Lodge has its own distinctive jewel.

In Hungary, the members of the Grand Lodge wear collars of light blue watered silk, with a narrow edging of red, white and green-the national colors- from which is suspended a five-pointed star, enameled in the center with a number of emblems, and bearing the inscription Magnus Latom Hunc Coetus Symbolicus.

The Grand Officers wear collars or orange-colored ribbon, with a narrow edging of dark green, lined with white silk, and embroidered with the emblem of office and acacia leaves. The Aprons are simple, with blue edging, and, for Master Masons, three rosettes; that of the Grand Master is the same.

In Germany, the various Grand Lodges exhibit considerable variation in size and shape of Aprons; some are diminutive, others large, whilst the shape varies, square, rounded or shield-shaped. Some bear rosettes, others levels, the latter even on the Entered Apprentice Apron, so that obviously their symbolism is not the same as in England, where they designate Past Masters only. Each German Lodge possesses its own distinctive jewel.

Under the Grande Oriente Nacionale of Spain, the Entered Apprentice Apron is of white leather, rounded at the bottom, but with a pointed flap, worn raised; that of Fellow Craft is identical, the flap being turned down; the Master Mason Apron is of white satin, with curved flap, edged with crimson, and embroidered with square and compasses, enclosing the letter G., the letters M.’. and B:. and three stars. The Apron is lined with black brocaded silk, and embroidered with skull, cross-bones and three stars, for the Third Degree. The Officers’ jewels are identical with those of England.

In Portugal, the Grand Officers wear white satin Aprons edged with blue and gold, and with three rosettes. The collar is of blue watered silk embroidered with acacia in gold. The gauntlets have also G. O. L. U., Grande Oriente Lusitania Unido, embroidered on them, with the date of its formation, 1869. The ordinary Craft clothing is simple.

The clothing of the Grand Orient of Egypt is practically identical with that of England, but the colors are thistle and sea-green instead of dark and light blue.

The Organists’ jewel is an od, a kind of guitar, instead of a lyre, and the rank of the wearer is indicated by the number of stars embroidered on the collar.

For the above information regarding European procedure we are indebted to a paper by Brother Fred J. W. Crowe (Transactions, 1901-2, page 81, Lodge of Research, Leicester, England; see also American Union Lodge).

CLOTHING AND WAGES

As a modern student reads the Fabric Rolls, Borough Records, and Statutes of the Middle Ages he sees that nothing burned itself more deeply into the minds of Operative Masons (and other workers) than the bitter and brutal question of wages, and it is little wonder that the “wages of a Master Mason” was a theme carried over into the symbolism of Speculative Freemasonry centuries afterwards. There were three reasons for this : the amount of pay was unjustly small, unbelievably so; wages were not adjusted to a worker’s ability or production but were by the state socialism so long in vogue fixed by civil Statutes, and were arbitrarily fixed ; and workers resented the loss of so many days of work each year because of the senseless multiplication of holidays, an evil owed directly to the monks and priests who never tired of their endeavor to have a new workless day set aside for each new saint. A table covering 1351 A.D. (about the time when the first permanent Lodges were formed) to 1495 (the period of the discovery of America) shows that in 1351 a “Master freemason” received 4sh a day; in 1361 the same; in 1495 his summer wages were 6 or 4d, and his winter wages, 5 or 3cl. An “ordinary mason” in 1351 received 3d per day; a “Mason’s servant” (or helper) 1,5d; a tiler (or roofer) 3d; a tiler’s helper, 1,5d.

The clothing worn by Masons and their wives, sons, and daughters also was prescribed by law, partly to prevent those of the “lower orders” from dressing as well as “their betters,” partly because in the Middle Ages liveries or costumes were worn in order to show what craft, profession, art, or class a man belonged to.

Gilbert Stone writes: “Thus by 37 Edw. III, C. 9, it was provided that ‘people of handicraft and yeomen’ were not to wear cloth of a higher price than forty shillings and their wives and daughters were only permitted to wear, so far as furs were concerned, some of the cheapest kinds . . .” This wearing of a prescribed costume also bit deeply into the minds of Masons, and it helps to explain why in the earliest Lodges so much stress was laid on “being properly clothed,” and why gloves were so important-a sign of equality then ; it also helps to explain the proud boast that a Mason’s apron, once a badge which proclaimed him a member of the “lower orders” and a workman, was now an honor, more ancient than the Golden Fleece, more honorable than the Star and Garter—as in literal truth it was.

(A History of Labor, by Gilbert Stone; London; George C. Harrap & Co., London; 1921, is not a Masonic book yet few books throw a clearer light on early Masonic history. Where other historians of Medieval Masons and kindred craftsmen fit their narrative into a framework of general or political history, or write of the subject in the terms of an art, Stone primarily sees in the Medieval craftsman a man, and brings his abundance of data to bear on the question, “What was it like to be a workman?” “A List of Selected Books” beginning on Stone’s page 403 is one of the best bibliographies ever published in this field.)

CLUBS, AND FREEMASONRY

The formation of the first Grand Lodge of Speculative Freemasonry in 1717 coincided with a sudden and almost explosive multiplication of clubs. They broke out like a rash over the whole of England. In every village or town was at least one tavern or inn and one or more clubs were sure to meet in it. There was an amazing number of categories of clubs, from clubs for elderly high churchmen to the most outer extravagances of those eccentrics who in France and Italy wonder travelers the soubriquet of “mad Englishmen” : political clubs, scientific clubs (the Royal Society had one), betting clubs, bottle clubs, shooting clubs, music clubs, coffee clubs, odd fellows clubs, clubs for fat men, bald men, dwarfs, hen-pecked men, one-eyed men, insurance clubs, burial clubs, clubs male and female, clubs that were a sort of lay church, and clubs for opium smokers, etc., etc. When the first of the new Lodges of Speculative Freemasonry began to at tract attention the populace took them for a new species of clubs.

More than one attempt has been made to turn that popular impression into an argument, more often by social historians than by Masonic writers; it has never succeeded, because while a Lodge may often have been a clubbable society, few things could be less alike in substance or in purpose than a club and a Lodge. The truth of th at statement is proved by the fact that even in cities with hundreds of Lodges their members form Masonic clubs on the side.

See Club Makers and Club Members, by T. H. S. Escott; Sturgis & Walton Co.1914.

NOTE. Side Orders and Masonic clubs have the same status in the eyes of Masonic law. When Masonic clubs first began to be formed about the beginning of this century their officers and members took the ground that since they were not Lodges, were not, properly speaking, Masonic organizations, and acted independently of Lodges and Grand Lodges, neither Masters nor Grand Masters held any authority over them ; and in the beginning the majority of Grand Masters agreed with this opinion. But after some twenty years of experience with them Grand Masters and Grand Lodges began to hold that while a Masonic officer cannot supervise a club as such, a Lodge or a Grand Lodge can discipline club members in their capacity as Masons. A Grand Master of Masons in Iowa notified the members of a Side Order that if they held a street carnival of a kind as planned he would order them tried for un-Masonic conduct; one or two years later a Grand Master of Masons in Michigan followed a similar course with another Side Order because of the indecent posters with which it was advertising an indoor circus. Grand Lodges uphold that reading of the Question ; if a man is guilty of conduct unbecoming a Mason he is subject to discipline without regard to where he was guilty.

CLOTHING THE LODGE

In the General Regulations, approved by the Grand Lodge of England in 1721, it is provided in article seven that “Every new Brother at his making is decently to cloth the Lodge, that is, all the Brethren present ; and to deposit something for the relief of indigent and decayed Brethren.” By “clothing the Lodge” was meant the furnishing of the Brethren with gloves and aprons. The regulation no longer exists. It is strange that Oliver should have quoted as the authority. for this usage a subsequent regulation of 1767. In Scotland this was practiced in several Lodges to a comparatively recent date and continues to be frequently observed in many Lodges in South and Central America, the Continent of Europe, and in Lodges receiving their Masonic customs therefrom.

CLOUDED CANOPY

See Canopy, Clouded

CLOUD, PILLAR OF

See Pillars of Cloud and Fire

CLOUDY

A word sometimes improperly used by the Wardens of a Lodge when reporting an unfavorable result of the ballot. The proper word on such an occasion is foul.

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