ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES
by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D. Enciclopédia
Among the German Stone Masons of the Middle Ages, the original Lodge at Strasburg was considered as the head of the Craft, under the title of the Haupt-Hutte, the Head Lodge, or Grand Lodge.
French, meaning Hiph Dearees, which see
HAWKINS, EDWARD LOVELL
Author of the Concise Cyclopedia and founder of the Miscellanea Latomorum, died on April 17, 1913, and was at the time of his death Senior Warden of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, being appointed to that office on November 8, 1912.
Born on August 10, 1851, initiated in the Apollo University Lodge No. 357 at Oxford, England, and was its Worshipful Master in 1881. He also served as Provincial Grand Steward of Oxfordshire in 1879, becoming Grand Registrar in 1880, Grand Warden in 1882, and was Grand .Secretary of the Province from 1883 to 1885. In the Province of Sussex he was Grand Steward in 1910 and Senior Grand Warden in 1912. In other Bodies he also held prominent rank. one of the earliest joining members of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, on April 7, 1882, the first meeting after the consecration, and on November 8 , 1912, he was appointed Senior Warden of Lodge 2076. Among his literary works are a History of Freemasonry in Oxfordshire, 1882; A Concise Cyclopedia, or Handbook of Masonic References, 1908, and also he took an active part in the preparation of the new and revised edition of Doctor Mackey’s monumental Encyclopedia of Freemasonry and its Kindred Sciences published in 1912. He conceived the idea of a periodical treating of Masonic notes and queries and in Mail, 1911, the first number of Miscellanea Latomorum appeared and was continued up to his death, then the editorial labor was carried on by Brother F. W. Lavender, and after his death, by Brother Lionel Vibert.
HAYS, MOSES MICHAEL
Born 1739 in Lisbon, Portugal, his parents were Jews. In 1761, while in Jamaica, he secured the appointment of Deputy Inspector-General for North America for the Masonic Rite of Perfection. From Jamaica Brother Hays went to the West Indies and thence to Newport, Rhode Island, where he became active in the Fraternity. November 5, 1782, Brother Hays was proposed as a member of Massachusetts Lodge, Boston. He was elected Master, December 3, 1782, held this office until 1785, when he was appointed Junior Grand Warden and he served as Grand Master of the Massachusetts Grand Lodge from July 24, 1788, until March 5, 1792, at which time the union was effected between the two Grand Lodges of Massachusetts. which unity was due in a large way to the efforts of Brother Hays.
His death occurred May 9, 1805, and the Columbian Sentinel, Boston, published the following obituary notice ore May 11:
In the character of the deceased there is much worth of our admiration much for our imitation. Possessed by nature of a strong interest there was a vigor in his conception of men and things which gave a seeming asperity to his conversation, which was ever frank anal lucid. He walked abroad fearing no man, but loving all. Under his roof dwelt hospitality, it was an asylum of friendship, the mansion of peace. He was without guile. despising hypocrisy as he despised meanness. Take hint for all in all, he was A MAN. In his death society wills mourn the loss of a most estimable citizen, his family the kindest of husbands, the most indulgent of fathers. But what consolation shall we offer to assuage the violence of their grief? Why this is all-the recollection of his virtues, and that as he lived, so he died, that to his last moment the cheerfulness and benevolence of his whole life wasted not on his falling brow. Calm and without a sign he sunk to rest. and is non secure in the bosom of his Father and our Father, of his God and our God.
Freemasonry, which had been in existence for several years in the island of Hayti, was entirely extinguished by the revolution which drove out the white inhabitants. In 1809, the Grand Lodge of England granted a Charter for a Lodge at Port au-princes and for one at Cayes. In 1817, the same authority constituted two others, at Jeremias and at Jacmel Subsequently, a Provincial Grand Lodge was established under obedience to England. January 25, 1824, this Provincial Grand Lodge declared its independence and organized the Grand Orient of Hayti.
A technical Masonic term which signifies to make valid or legal. Hence one who has received a Degree in an irregular manner or from incompetent authority is not recognized until he has been healed. The precise mode of healing depends on circumstances If the Lodge which conferred the Degree was clandestine, the whole ceremony of initiation would have to be repeated. If the authority which conferred the Degree was only irregular, and the question was merely a technical one of legal competence, it is only necessary to exact an obligation of allegiance, or in other words to renew the covenant.
One of the five senses, and an important symbol in Freemasonry, because it is through it that we receive instruction when ignorant, admonition when in danger, reproof when in error, and the claim of a Brother who is in distress. Without this sense, the Freemason would be crippled in the performance of all his duties; and hence deafness is deemed a disqualification for initiation.
Notwithstanding that all the modern American Masonic Manuals and Masters Carpets from the time of Jeremy L. Cross exhibit the picture of a heart among the emblems of the Third Degree, there is no such symbol in the instructions except as a part of the stern injunction that justice will sooner or later overtake the wrongdoer. But the theory that every man who becomes a Freemason must first be prepared in his heart was advanced among the earliest lectures of the eighteenth century, and demonstrates, as Krause properly remarks, in Speculative Freemasonry, an internal principle which addresses itself not simply to the outward conduct, but to the inner spirit and conscience of all men who seek its instructions.
HEART OF HIRAM ABIF
There is a legend in some of the advanced Degrees and in Continental Freemasonry, that the heart of Hiram Abif was deposited in an urn and placed upon a monument near the Holy of Holies; and in some of the Tracing Boards it is represented as a symbol. The myth, for such it is, was probably derived from the very common custom in the Middle Ages of persons causing their bodies to be dismembered after death for the purpose of having parts of them buried in a church, or some place which had been dear to them in life.
The medieval idea has descended to modern times; for our present instructions in the United States say that the ashes of Hiram were deposited in an urn.
The ecclesiastical year commences with the first Nisan, March, but the civil reckoning begins with the first Tishri, September, which is New Year’s Day.
The following dates are accepted by the Hebrews, as given by Doctor Zunz in Remarks prefacing The 24 Books of the Holy Scriptures according to the Massoretic Text:
- BEFORE CONMON ERA.
- 3988, Creation.
- 2332, Flood.
- 2040, Abraham born.
- 1575, Moses born.
- 1495, Exodus.
- 1051, David acknowledged as King.
- 1015, First Temple commenced.
- 586, First Temple destroyed.
- 536, Cyrus Decree.
- 516, Second Temple completed.
- 330, Alexander conquers Palestine.
The succeeding dates are in accord with the research of other authorities.
The Temple was dedicated on five occasions:
- 1004 B.C., fifteenth day of Tishri- Ethanim and Abib. First Kings via 2 to 62.
- 726 B. C., when purified from the abominations of Ahaz.
- 516 B.C., third Adar, upon completion of Zerubbabel’s Temple.
- 164 B.C., twenty-fifth Kislev, after the victory of Judas Maceabaeus over the Syrians the service lasted eight days.
- 22 B.C., upon completion of Herod’s Temple.
HECART, GABRIEL ANTOINE JOSEPH
A French Masonic writer, who was born at Valenciennes in 1755, and died in 1838. He made a curious collection of Degrees; and invented a system of five, namely:
- Knight of the Prussian Eagle;
- Knight of the Comet;
- The Scottish Purifier;
- Victorious Knight;
- Scottish Trinitarian, or Grand Master Commander of the Temple.
This cannot be called a Rite, because it was never accepted and practised by any Masonic authority. It is known in nomenclatures as Nécart’s System. He was the author of many dissertations and didactic essays on Masonic subjects. He at one time proposed to publish his collection of Degrees with a full explanation of each, but did not carry his design into execution. Many of them are cited in this work.
The Greek compound word hecatotombe, from hecaton, meaning one hundred, and bous, ox. and therefore strictly speaking a reference to the sacrifice of one hundred oxen. But the allusion to a sacrifice, formerly of one hundred bulls, and in later expressions referring probably only to an indefinitely large number of victims, is also capable of being applied and was frequently so employed, to mean any great sacrifice. In this latter sense should the word be understood by Freemasons. Pythagoras was a vegetarian who taught that killing was wicked and to him the sacrifice of a hecatomb could have meant no loss of animal life in the offering (see Forty-seventh Problem).
This expression has been believed to be applied to a secret society, probably Masonic, but meeting without Warrant or authority. In Transactions, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 1913 (volume xxvi, part 2, page 197), we find that a letter of Amicus to the Editor of the Northern Star, Ireland, dated March 21, 1792, mentions that all disorders and mischiefs in the country are being hatched by those who associate under the description of Hedge Masons.
HEIGHT OF THE LODGE
From the earth to the highest heavens. A symbolic expression (see Form of the Lodge).
HELDMANN, DR. FRIEDRICH
A Professor of Political Science in the Academy of Bern, in Switzerland, and was born at Margetshochheim, in Franconia, November 24, 1770. He was one of the most profound of the German investigators into the history and philosophy of Freemasonry. He was initiated into the Order at Freiburg, in 1809, and, devoting himself to the study of the works of Fessler and other eminent scholars, he resolved to establish a system founded on a collation of all the rituals, and which should be more in accordance with the true design of the Institution. For this purpose, in 1816, he organized the Lodge zur Brudertreue at Aarau, in Switzerland, where he then resided as a professor. For the Lodge he prepared a Manual, which he proposed to publish. But the Helvetian Directory demanded that the manuscript should be given to that Body for inspection and correction, which the Lodge, unwilling to submit to such a censorship, refused to do. Heldmann, being reluctant to involve the Lodge in a controversy with its superiors, withdrew from it. He subsequently published a valuable work entitled Die drei altesten geschichtlichen Denkmale der deutschen Freimaurerbruderschaft; meaning, The three oldest Memorials of the German Masonic Brotherhood, which appeared at Aarau in 1819. In this work, which is chiefly founded on the learned researches of Krause, the Constitutions of the Stone-Masons of Strasburg were published for the first time.
A tiler or teghtor. From the AngloSaxon Helan. Also written Hillyar and Hilliar.
A defensive weapon wherewith the head and neck are covered. In heraldry, it is a mark of chivalry and nobility. It was, of course, a part of the armor of a knight, and therefore, whatever may be the head covering adopted by modern Knights Templar, it is in the instructions called a helmet.
HELMETS, TO DEPOSIT
In quaint old Templar ritualism, to lay aside the covering of the head.
HELMETS, TO RECOVER
In the early Templar ritualism, to resume the covering of the head.
See Aid and Assistance
HEMMING, SAMUEL, D.D.
Previous to the Union of the two Grand Lodges of England in 1813, the Prestonian system of lectures was practiced by the Grand Lodge of Modern Freemasons, while the Atholl Freemasons recognized higher Degrees, and varied somewhat in their ritual of the lower. When the Union was consummated, and the United Grand Lodge of England was organized, a compromise was effected, and Doctor Hemming, who was the Senior Grand Warden, and had been distinguished for his skill as the Master of a Lodge and his acquaintance with the ritual, was appointed to frame a new system of lectures. The Prestonian system was abandoned, and the Hemming lectures adopted in its place, not without the regret of many distinguished Freemasons, among whom was Doctor Oliver. Among the innovations of Doctor Hemming, which are to be regretted, are the abolition of the dedication to the two Saints John, and the substitution for it of a dedication to Solomon. In Brother Mackey’s opinion, some other changes that were made were certainly not improvements.
Editor of the fourth volume of the German Encyclopadie (see Lenning) .
The widow of Charles I, of England It is asserted, by those who support the theory that the Master’s Degree was invented by the adherents of the exiled house of Stuart, and that its legend refers to the death of Charles I and the restoration of his son, that in the technical Masonic expression of the “Widow’s Son,” the allusion is to the widow of the decapitated monarch. Those who look further for the foundation of the legend give, of course, no credence to a statement whose plausibility depends only on a coincidence.
HENRY PRICE MEDAL
See Price, Henry
King of England from 1422 to 1461. This monarch is closely connected with the history of Freemasonry because, in the beginning of his reign and during his minority, the celebrated Statute of Laborers, which prohibited the congregations of the Freemasons, was passed by an intolerant Parliament, and because of the questions said to have been proposed to the Freemasons by the king, and their answers, which are contained in what is called the Leland Manuscript, a document which, if authentic, is highly important; but of whose authenticity there are as many oppugners as there are defenders.
In what are called the High Degrees of the Continental Rites, there is nothing more puzzling than the etymology of this word. We have the Royal Order of Heredom, given as the ne plus ultra, meaning nothing farther or nothing beyond, of Freemasonry in Scotland, and in almost all the Rites the Rose Croix of Heredom, but the true meaning of the word is apparently unknown. Ragon, in his Orthodoxie Maçonnique (page 91), asserts that it has a political signification, and that it was invented between the years 1740 and 1745, by the adherents of Charles Edward the Pretender, at the Court of Saint Germain, which was the residence, during that period, of the unfortunate prince, and that in their letters to England, dated from Heredom, they mean to denote Saint Germain. He supposes it to be derived from the medieval Latin word hoeredum, signifying a heritage, and that it alludes to the Castle of Saint Germain, the only heritage left to the dethroned sovereign But as Ragon’s favorite notion was that the Hautes Grades or High Degrees, were originally instituted for the purpose of aiding the house of Stuart in its restoration to the throne, a theory not now generally accepted, at least without modification, this etymology must be taken with some grains of allowance The suggestion is, however, an ingenious one.
In some of the old manuscripts the word Heroden is found as the name of a mountain in Scotland; and we sometimes find in the French Cahiers the title of Rose Croiz de Heroden. There is not a very great difference in the French pronunciation of Heredom and Heroden, and one might be a corruption of the other. Brother Mackey says he was once inclined to this theory; but even if it were the correct one we should gain nothing, for the same difficulty would recur in tracing the root and meaning of Heroden.
The most plausible derivation is one given in 1858, by a writer in the London Freemasons Magazine. He thinks it should be spelled Heredom, and traces it to the two Greek words, repass hieros, meaning holy, and biros, domos, meaning house. It would thus refer to Freemasonry as symbolically the Holy House or Temple. In this way the title of Rose Croiz of Heredom would signify the Rosy Cross of the Holy House of Freemasonry. This derivation is now very generally recognized as the true one.
So far Brother Mackey’s explanation of the word, but at this point Brother Hawkins observes that according to the view taken in the last paragraph the word should be Hierodom (see also Royal Order of Scotland ).
A corruption of Hermes, found in some of the old Constitutions (see Hermes).
The Spanish word for Brotherhood. An association of the principal cities of Castile and Aragon bound by a solemn league for the defense of their liberties in time of trouble. The sovereigns approved this brotherhood as agents for suppressing w the increasing power of the nobles, and without cost to the government. The Hermandad was first established in Aragon in the thirteenth century, and in Castile about thirty years later, while, in 1295, thirty-five cities of Castile and Leon formed a joint confederacy, pledging themselves to take summary vengeance on every robber noble who injured a member of the association. The Santa, or Holy Brotherhood, finally checked so effectually the outrages of the nobles, that Isabella of Castile, in 1496, obtained the sanction of the Cortez to reorganize and extend it over the whole kingdom.
In all the old manuscript records which contain the Legend of the Craft, mention is made of Hermes as one of the founders of Freemasonry. Thus, in the Grand Lodge Manuscript, No. 1, whose date is 1583 and the statement is substantially and almost verbally the same in all the others that “The great Hermarines that was Cubys sonne, the which Cubye was Semmes sonne, that was Noes sonne. This same Hermarines was afterwards called Hernes the father of Wysdome; he found one of the two pillars of stone, and found the science written therein, and he taught it to other men.”
There are two persons of the name of Hermes mentioned in sacred history. The first is the divine Hermes, called by the Romans Mercury. Among the Egyptians he was known as Thoth. Diodorus Siculus describes him as the Secretary of Osiris; he is commonly supposed to have been the son of Mizraim, and Cumberland says that he was the same as Osiris. There is, however, much confusion among the mythologists concerning his attributes.
The second was Hermes Trismegistus or the Thrice Great, who was a celebrated Egyptian legislator, priest, and philosopher, who lived in the reign of Ninus, about the year of the world 2670. He is said to have written thirty-six books on theology and philosophy, and six upon medicine, all of which are lost. There are many traditions of him; one of which, related by Eusebius, is that he introduced hieroglyphics into Egypt. This Hermes Trismegistus, although the reality of his existence is doubtful, was claimed by the alchemists as the founder of their art, whence it is called the Hermetic Science, and whence we get in Freemasonry, Hermetic Rites and Hermetic Degrees.
It is to him that the Legend of the Craft refers; and, indeed, the York Constitutions, which are of importance, though not probably of the date of 926, assigned to them by Krause, give him that title, and say that he brought the custom of making himself understood by signs with him to Egypt. In the first ages of the Christian church, this mythical Egyptian philosopher was in fact considered as the inventor of everything known to the human intellect. It was fabled that Pythagoras and Plato had derived their knowledge from him, and that he had recorded his inventions on pillars. The Operative Masons, who wrote the old Constitutions, obtained their acquaintance with him from the Polycromycon of the monk Ranulf Higden, which was translated from the Latin by Trevisa, and printed by William Caxton in 1482. It is repeatedly quoted in the Cooke Manuscript, whose probable date is the latter part of the fifteenth century, and was undoubtedly familiar to the writers of the other Constitutions.