ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES
by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D.
In the oldest North Ireland records of Freemasonry are references to “Priests Pillar Lodges” and to “Hedge Masons”; these are taken by the historians of the Irish Craft, Crawley, Lepper, and Crossle, to denote “Lodges” or “makings’ out of doors. The Work Book of 1670 of the Lodge Aberdeen 1e of Scotland has a passage connecting the Irish custom with a Scottish one: “We ordain likewise that all entering Prentices be entered in our ancient outfield lodge in the Mearns in the parish of Nigg at the sources at the point of the Ness.”
The Weekly Journal or British Gazeteer, April 11, 1730, published this item: “A few days since, their Graces the Dukes of Richmond and Montague, accompanied by several gentlemen who were all Free and Accepted Masons, according to ancient custom, formed a lodge upon the top of a hill near the Duke of Richmond’s seat, at Goodwood in Sussex, and made the Right. Hon. the Lord Baltimore a Free and Accepted Mason.” The Duke of Montague (not to be confused with the Duke of Montagtle who was Grand Master in 1721) was Grand Master in 1732 A Duke of Richmond was Grand Master in 1724.
Bro. R. J. Meekren, a former editor of The Builder, contlilJuteel to the interpretation of the history of the Ritual the valuable suggestion that there is a distinct element in the Ritual which is clearly distinguished in 1721 from the rest; that does not appear to be of architectural origin but is more like certain anthropologic ceremonies, of the sort so abundantly illustrated in Frazer’s Golden Bough; that the elite of HA.-. is one of them; that it sounds like an old “cultural survival”; and that it may have been the rite enacted outdoors “on the highest hills or in the lowest vales.”
HINDUS IN FREEMASONRY
When Freemasonry was carried into India early in the Nineteenth Century the bearers of it in the majority of instances were military Lodges; and as they gave way to permanent, local Lodges the latter were composed almost w holly of English, Scottish, and Irish Brethren for in that period the so-called “color line” was strictly drawn; but after many years one Indian after another was admitted, some of them of the Hindu religion, some of them Mohammedans, with a sprinkling from any one of the other numerous Indian faiths. Masons from America, Britain, and Europe watched this experiment with an abiding interest; when the Fraternity of Anglo-Saxondom, which long had kept the Holy Bible on the altar, became admixed with Hindus, Brahmins, Mohammedans, Jains, Parsees, with believers in the Vedas, the Gita, the Tripitaka, etc., what would be the amalgam thus formed? Would Oriental Freemasonry become transformed out of recognition? Would it preserve its forms but lose its original substance? Not all the returns are in as yet, but aftel a half-century of the experiment there are a sufficient number of them to make clear at least one verdict: that Freemasonry is capable of becoming universal in the most literal sense without being altered in Landmarks or purposes. An ever-growing Masonic literature out of India attests that fact.
A representative of that literature which already is out-dated in India but would be new if it could be widely read in America is an extraordinary book: The K. 1V. Cama Masonic Jubilee Volume, Containing Papers on Masonic Subjects Written by Varuxus Freemasons in Honour of Bro. Kharshedji Rustaniji Cama on his completing 50 years of Masonic Life in the year 1904, edited by Jivanji Jamshedji Modi (Fellow of the University of Bombay); 1907; Bombay.
Bro. Cama was Made a Mason in Rising Star of Western India, No. 342, S. C., August 24, 1856, and to honor his many years of service in Craft work and to recognize his fame as an authority on Indian literature and also in Iranian literature, the Lodge proposed a banquet, but he demurred, and in lieu of it his Brethren prepared this volume in his honor. The volume consists of eighteen contributions, along with two or three poems. Among the authors are such names as Mills, Harley, Dover, co-mingled with such names as Wadia, Ghose, Dass; the concluding contribution is a paper on “Zoroaster and Euclid,” by Bro. Jivanji Jamshedji Modi. American readers will be pleased to discover one of our own Brothers in this symposium, R.-. W. . William C. Prime, of the Grand Lodge of New York. (The translator has him a resident of the city of Tonkers instead of Yonkers. Yonkers is a large industrial city and Masonic center which would be known the world over were it not smothered by New York City.)
HINDUSTAN, MYSTERIES OF
Of all the ethnic religions, that of Hindustan is admitted to be the oldest, for its Vedas or sacred books claim an antiquity of nearly forty centuries. However Brahmanism may have been corrupted in more modern times, in its earliest state it consisted of a series of doctrines which embraced a belief in a Supreme Being and in the immortality of the soul. All primitive religions were more or less mystical, and that of India formed no exception to the rule. Brother Oliver, in his History of Initiation, has given a very succinct account of the Brahmanical mysteries, collected from the most authentic sources, such as Maurice, Colebrook, Jones, and Faber. His description refers almost exclusively to the reception and advancement of a Brahman in his sacred profession; for the initiations of India, like those of Egypt, were confined to the priesthood. All Brahmans, it is true, do not necessarily belong to the sacerdotal order, but every Brahman who has been initiated, and thus been made acquainted with the formulas of worship, may at any time become an officiating priest.
The ceremonies of initiation, as they have been described by Brother Oliver, were celebrated in spacious caverns, the principal of which were Elephanta and Salsette, both situated near Bombay. The mysteries were divided into four Degrees, and the candidate was permitted to perform the probation of the first at the early age of eight years. It consisted simply in the investiture with the linen garment and Zennar or sacred cord; of sacrifices accompanied by ablutions; and of an explanatory lecture. The aspirant was now delivered into the care of a Brahman, who thenceforth became his spiritual g ude, and prepared him by repeated instructions and a life of austerity for admission into the Second Degree. To this, if found qualified, he was admitted at the requisite age. The probationary ceremonies of this Degree consisted in an incessant occupation in prayers, fastings, ablutions, and the study of astronomy. Having undergone these austerities for a sufficient period, he was led at night to the gloomy caverns of initiation, vwhieh had been duly prepared for his reception.
The interior of this cavern was brilliantly illuminated, and there sat the three chief hierophants, in the east, west, and south, representing the gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, surrounded by the attendant mystagogues, dressed in appropriate vestments. After an invocation to the sun, the aspirant was called upon to promise that he would be obedient to his superiors, keep his body pure, and preserve inviolable secrecy on the subject of the mysteries. He was then sprinkled with water, an invocation of the Deity was whispered in his ear; he was divested of his shoes, and made to circumambulate the cavern three times, in imitation of the course of the sun, whose rising was personated by the hierophant representing Brahma, stationed in the east, whose meridian height by the representative of Siva in the south, and whose setting by the representative of Vishnu in the west. He was then conducted through seven ranges of dark and gloomy caverns, during which period the wailing of Mahadeva for the loss of Siva was represented by dismal howlings.
The usual paraphernalia of dashes of light, of dismal sounds and horrid phantoms, was practised to intimidate or confuse the aspirant. After the performance of a variety of other ceremonies, many of which we can only conjecture, the candidate reached the extremity of the seven caverns; he was now prepared for enlightenment by requisite instruction and the administration of a solemn oath. This part of the ceremonies concluded, then the sacred conch or horn was blown, the folding-doors were suddenly thrown open, and the aspirant was admitted into a spacious apartment filled with dazzling light, ornamented with statues and emblematical figures, richly decorated with gems, and scented with the most fragrant perfumes. This was a representation of Paradise.
The candidate was now supposed to be regenerated, and he was invested by the chief Brahman with the white robe and tiara; a cross was marked upon his forehead, and a tau upon his breast, and he was instructed in the signs, tokens, and lectures of the Order. He was presented with the sacred belt, the magical black stone, the talismanic jewel to be worn upon his breast, and the serpent stone, which, as its name imported, was an antidote against the bite of serpents. And, lastly, he was entrusted with the sacred name, known only to the initiated. This ineffable name was Aum, which, in its trilateral form, was significant of the creative, preservative, and destroying power, that is, of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva. It could not be pronounced, but was to be the subject of incessant silent contemplation. The symbols and the aporrheta, or secret things of the mysteries, were now explained. Here ended the Second Degree.
The Third took place when the candidate had grown old, and his children had all been provided for. This consisted in a total exclusion in the forest, where, as an anchored withdrawn from the world, a hermit, he occupied himself in ablutions, prayers, and sacrifices. In the Fourth Degree he underwent still greater austerities, the object of which was to impart to the happy sage who observed them a portion of the Divine nature, and to secure him a residence among the immortal gods.
The object of the Indian mysteries appears, says Brother Oliver, to have been to teach the unity of God and the necessity of virtue. The happiness of our first parents, the subsequent depravity of the human race, and the universal deluge were described in a manner which showed that their knowledge must have been derived from an authentic source.
A deep valley south of Mount Moriah, known as Gehenna; in which carrion was cast as food for vultures. The holy Valley of Judgment, Jehoshaphat, has been improperly substituted for Hinnom.
HIRSCHAU, WILHELM VON
The Abbot Wilhelm von Hirschau, Count Palatine of Scheuren, is said to have been the founder, at the close of the eleventh century, of the German Bauhütten. Having been previously the Master of the Bauhütte, or Lodge of St. Emmerau, in Ratisbon, when he became Abbot of Hirschau, he collected together in 1080-91 the Freemasons for the purpose of enlarging the Convent. He incorporated the workmen, says Findel ( History, page 54), with the monastery, as lay Brethren, and greatly promoted their instruction and general improvement. Their social life was regulated by special laws; and the one most frequently inculcated by him was that brotherly concord should prevail, because only by working together and lovingly uniting all their strength would it be possible to accomplish such great works as were these undertakings for the public benefit.
A powerful nation, whose two chief seats were at Kadesh, on the Orontes, and Carchemish, on the River Euphrates, and who subjected as allies, forces from Palestine, Lydia, and the Troad. This great empire had at times contended with the Egyptian monarchs before the days of the Exodus. The Assyrians also had felt their power. They were foremost in arms and in the arts, and carried their religion to the shores of the Aegean Sea; in fact, as shown by the explorations and discoveries of 1879, the early civilization of Greece and other European nations was as much indebted to them as it was to the Phoenicians. Egyptian inscriptions bear out the truth of these discoveries, and more firmly establish Biblical history. Jerusalem came within the influence of this great empire. The Hittites were finally subdued by the capture of their famous capital Carchemish, by Sargon, 717 B.C. For Biblical references, see Judges (i, 26!; First Kings (x, 28-29); Second Kings (vii, 6).
The system of writing by the Hittites was unique; their letters were hieroglyphic and their sculptures a peculiar and curious style of art, some of which may be found in the British Museum (see Fresh Lights, etc., by Sayce, chapter 5).
H:. K:. T:.
The abbreviation for Hiram, King of Tyre
The name given, in some of the advanced Degrees, to one of the three conspirators commemorated in the Master’s Degree. The derivation is uncertain. Oben, in Hebrew, means a stone: or it may be a corruption of Habbone, the Builder or Mason.
The Blind Fate mentioned in the Scandinavian Mysteries (see Balder).
Artist and engraver. Born November 10, 1697, and died on October 25, 1767, London. He was a member of the Masonic Lodge at the Hand and Apple Tree Tavern on Little Queen Street at London. This Lodge was organized and constituted in 1725 and erased in 1737. Hogarth, according to the Grand Lodge Register, was also a member of the Lodge at the Bear and Harrow Tavern in 1731 and was a Grand Steward in 1735. His father-in-law, Sir J. Thornhill, was Senior Grand Warden in 1728.
Brother George W. Speth was of the opinion that the date of Hogarth’s famous picture Night, that is the occurrence it celebrates, was intended to be May 29, the anniversary of the Restoration of Charles II, as shown by the oak-leaves over the barber’s sign and in the hats of two of the figures. The street is probably Hartshorn Lane, Charing Cross, opening into what is now Trafalgar Square and which was Northumberland Street but is now North Avenue in London. Brother Speth suggests the principal figure is that of Sir Thomas de Veil, a member of Hogarth’s first Lodge, the one meeting at the Vine in 1729. A sword under the arm of the boon companion and the Masonic apron, large in size, as was typical of these times, are suggestive of the Tyler and have been taken to mean a caricature of Brother Montgomery. the Grand Tyler, or, as he was then called, “garder of ye Grand Lodge.” Note the snuffers, useful where candles were a common source-of illumination, to be seen hanging at the Tyler’s belt in the picture representing Night. This engraving was published in 1837.
Brother Hogarth married Jane Thornbill in 1729, daughter of Sir James Thornbill, at whose art school he studied for a time, and who for a long time refused to admit his genius and skill as an artist. It was not until Hogarth finished his series of six pictures depicting A Harlot’s Progress that his father-in-law was entirely reconciled to the painter who had finally attained the fame warranted by his art. Hogarth painted a number of these series or pictures or illustrated stories, among the most popular being Marriage à la mode, A Rake’s Progress and Four Times a Day. Hogarth also met with success as a portrait painter and in 1746 he painted Garrick as Richard III, for which he wages handsomely paid for that day and age. His celebrated portrait of himself with his dog Trump is now in the National Gallery at London.
Hogarth died at the age of sixty-eight years and was buried in Chiswick, a tomb having since been erected to him, in 1771, by his admirers. A private hou3e in which he spent many of his summers was purchased in 1902 by Lieutenant-Colonel Shipway of Chiswick and turned into a Hogarth Museum.
Famous Scottish poet, born 1770; died 1835. Became a Freemason in Canongate Kilwinning Lodge in Scotland, May, 1835 (see New Age, May, 1925).
A combination of the two Hebrew pronouns m, ho, meaning He, and of, hi, meaning ‘n; thus mystically representing the twofold sex of the Creator, and obtained by a Cabalistic transposition or inversion of the letters of the Tetragrammaton nln’ or Ihoh. Ho-hi, therefore, thus Cabalistically obtained, denotes the male and female principle, the vis genitrix, the phallus and lingam, the point within the circle; the notion of which, in some one form or another of this double gender, pervades all the ancient systems as the representative of the creative power Thus, one of the names given by the mythological writers to the Supreme Jupiter was appevo9vXvs, the man-woman. In one of the Orphic hymns we find the following line:
Zeus QpO7/V, yevero, Zfus vS3poros e7rXero Wag. Jove is a male, Jove is all immortal virgin.
Plutarcht in his Isis and Osiris, says, “God, wbo is a male and female intelligence, being both Life and Light, brought forth another intelligence, the Creator Of the world.” All the Paean gods and goddesses, however various their appellation, were but different expressions for the male and fenale principle. “In feet,” says Russel, “they may all be included in the one great Hermaphrodite, the appevoinaus who combines in His nature all the elements of production, and who continues to support the vast creation which originally proceeded from His will.” And thus, too, may we learn something of the true meaning of the passage in Genesis (I, 27), where it is said, “So God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.” The suggestion of this working of Ho-hi out of Oh- Ho was put forward by George R. Gliddon, the Egyptologist, who had obtained it from the writings of Lanzi, the Italian antiquary.
HOLINESS TO THE LORD
In Hebrew, Kodesh Layehovah. It was the inscription on the plate of gold that was placed in front of the High Priest’s miter. The letters were in the ancient Samaritan character (see Exodus xxix, 30).
The first mention of the Craft in Holland belongs properly to the history of Freemasonry in Austria. In 1731 Francis, Duke of Lorraine, later Emperor of Austria and Germany, was initiated by Doctor Desaguliers at a special Lodge at the Hague. The first regular Dutch Lodge was the Loge du Grand Maitre des Provinces Réunies, Grand Masters Lodge of the Reunited Provinces, instituted at the Hague with Count Vincent de la Chapelle as Worshipful Master. Freemasonry in Holland was regarded with disfavor by the Government and suffered much persecution. On December 25, 1756, however, fourteen Lodges attended a Convention to constitute a Grand Lodge and two days later Baron Aerssen Beyeren was elected Grand Master. A separate Grand Lodge was formed by the Belgian Lodges in 1817 and between the two Grand Bodies there was some dissension. In 1835 a state of peace was at last attained under the leadership of Prince Frederick Wilhelm Karl of the Netherlands.
HOLY CITY, KNIGHT OF THE
The Fifth and last of the Degrees of the rectified Rite of the Benevolent Knights of the Holy City, or the Rite of Strict Observance, settled at Wilhelmsbad in 1782.
See San Greaal
A Masonic Lodge is said to be held on holy ground, according to the Prestonian lecture, because the first regularly constituted Lodge was held on that holy, consecrated ground wherein the first three grand offerings were made, which afterward met with Divine approbation (see Ground Floor of the Lodge and Grand offerings).
The lectures of the eighteenth century taught symbolically that there were three Lodges opened at three different periods in Masonic history; these were the Holy Lodge, the Sacred Lodge, and the Royal Lodge. The Holy Lodge was opened in the tabernacle in the wilderness, and over it presided Moses, Aholiab, and Bezaleel; the Sacred Lodge was opened on Mount Moriah during the building of the first Temple, and was presided over by Solomon, King of Israel, Hiram, the King of Tyre, and Hiram the Builder; the Royal Lodge was opened among the ruins of the first Temple, at the building of the second, and was presided over by Joshua, Zerubbabel, and Haggai. Though presented as a tradition, it is really only a symbol intended to illustrate three important events in the progress of Masonic science.
Freemasonry teaches, in all its symbols and rituals, a reverence for the name of God, which is emphatically caned the ” Holy Name.” In the prayer .Ahabath Olam, first introduced by Dermott, it is said, “because we trusted in Thy holy, great, mighty, and terrible Name”; and in the introductory prayer of the Royal Arch, according to the American system, similar phraseology is employed: “Teach us, we pray Thee, the true reverence of Thy great, mighty, and terrible Name.” The expression, if not the sentiment, is borrowed from the Hebrew mysteries.
HOLY OF HOLIES
Every student of Jewish antiquities knows and every Freemason who has taken the Third Degree ought to knows, what was the peculiar construction, character, and uses of the Sanctum Sanctorum or Holly of Holies in King Solomon’s Temple. Situated in the western end of the Temple, separated from the rest of the building by a heavy curtain, and enclosed on three sides by dead walls without any aperture or window, it contained the sacred Ark of the Covenant, and was secluded and set apart from all intrusion save of the High Priest, who only entered it on certain solemn occasions. As it was the most sacred of the three parts of the Temple, so has it been made symbolic of a Master’s Lodge, in which are performed the most sacred rites of initiation in Ancient Craft Freemasonry.
But as modern horologists have found in all the Hebrew rites and ceremonies the traces of more ancient mysteries, from which they seem to have been derived, or on which they have been modified, whence we trace also to the same mysteries most of the Masonic forms which, of course, are more immediately founded on the Jewish Scriptures, so we shall find in the ancient Gentile temples the type of this same Sanctum Sanctorum or Holy of Holies, under the name of Adyton or Adytum. And what is more singular, we shall find a greater resemblance between this Adytum of the Pagan temples and the Lodge of Master Masons, than we will discover between the latter and the Sanctum Sanctorum of the Solomonic Temple. It will be curious and interesting to trace this resemblance, and to follow up the suggestions that it offers in reference to the antiquity of Masonic rites.
The Adytum was the most retired and secret part of the ancient Gentile temple, into which, as into the Holy of Holies of the Jewish Temple, the people were not permitted to enter, but which was accessible only to the priesthood. And hence the derivation of the word from the Greek Adoein, meaning not to enter, or that which it is not permitted to enter. Seclusion and mystery were always characteristic of the Adytum, and therefore, like the Holy of Holies, it never admitted of windows.
In the Adytum was to be found a taphos or tomb, and some relic or image or statue of the god to whom the temple was dedicated. The tomb reminds us of the characteristic feature of the Third Degree of Freemasonry; the image or statue of the god finds its analogue or similarity in the Ark of the Covenant and the overshadowing Cherubim.
It being supposed that temples owed their first origin to the reverence paid by the ancients to their deceased friends, and as it was an accepted theory that the gods were once men who had been deified on account of their heroic virtues, temples were, perhaps, in the beginning only stately monuments erected in honor of the dead. Hence the interior of the temple was originally nothing more than a cell or cavity, that is to say, a grave regarded as a place of deposit for the reception of a person interred, and, therefore, in it was to be found the soros or coffin, and the taphos or tomb, or, among the Scandinavians, the barrow or mound grave. In time the statue or image of a god took the place of the coffin; but the reverence for the spot, as one of peculiar sanctity, remained, and this interior part of the temple became among the Greeks the sekos or chapel, among the Romans the AdyEum or forbidden place, and among the Jevvs the kodesh kodashim, or Holy of Holies.
“The sanctity thus acquired,” says Dudley in his Naology (page 393), “by the cell of interment might readily and with propriety be assigned to any fabric capable of containing the body of the departed friend, or relic, or even the symbol of the presence or existence, of a divine personage.” Thus it happened that there was in every ancient temple an Adytum or Most Holy Place.
There was in the Holy of Holies of the Jewish Temple, it is true, no tomb nor coffin containing the relics of the dead. But there was an Ark of the Covenant which was the recipient of the Rod of Aaron, and the Pot of Manna, which might well be considered the relics of the past life of the Jewish nation in the wilderness. There was an analogy easily understood according to the principles of the science of symbolism. There was no statue or image of a god, but there were the sacred cherubim, and, above all, the Shekinah or Divine Presence, and the bathkol or Voice of God.
But when Freemasonry established its system partly on the ancient rites and partly on the Jewish ceremonies, it founded its Third Degree as the Adytum or holy of holies of all its mysteries, the exclusive place into which none but the most worthy the priesthood of Freemasonry the Masters in Israel were permitted to enter; and then going back to the mortuary idea of the ancient temple, it recognized the reverend for the dead which constitutes the peculiar characteristic of that Degree. And, therefore, in every Lodge of Master Masons there should be found, either actually or allegorically, a grave, or tomb, and coffin, because the Third Degree is the inmost sanctuary, the kodesh kodashim, the Holy of Holies of the Masonic temple.
Called also the Sanctuary. It was that part of the Temple of Solomon which was situated between the Porch and Holy of Holies. It was appropriated to the purposes of daily worship, and contained the altars and utensils used in that service. It has no symbolic meaning in Freemasonry; although really, as it occupied the ground floor of the Temple, it might be properly considered as represented by an Entered Apprenticed Lodge, that is to say, by the Lodge when occupied in the ceremonies of the First Degree.
HOLY SEPULCHER, KNIGHT OF THE
See Knight of the Holy Sepulcher
The tree of life and man in the Zoroastrian doctrine of the Persians.