ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES
by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D.
The system or Rite practiced lacy the German Illuminati is so called.
A title commonly used in addressing Brethren of the Thirty-Third Degree in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Formerly the word had a more extended usefulness among the Craft. For example, there is a Minute Book preserved in the Museum of the Grand Lodge Zur Sonne at Bayreuth, Germany. This record is written in French as a report of the inauguration of the Lodge Eleusis at Bayreuth on December 4, 1741. A translation of the memorandum is as follows: The fourth of the month of December our Very Worshipful Lodge hats installed the new Lodge in the City at the Golden Eagle. The procession was arranged with beautiful ceremonies.
- Two Bearers carrying gloves.
- Two Stewards or Marshals with their insignia and white batons or staffs in hand.
- The Grand Sword Bearers of the Grand Lodge.
- The Secretary of the Grand Lodge.
- Our Very Illustrious Master—Margrave Friedrich von Brandenburg—Bayreuth—as Grand Master of the Order, between the Wardens.
- The new Master of the new Lodge, between laid Wardens.
- All the Brethren, fifty in number.
Before the entrance to the Golden Eagle was posted a Sentinel, on the staircase was another. Music of very agreeable kind woes heard. We made some Brethren anti Masters. After supper the Procession returned in the same manner that it had arrived. The student of Freemasonry will not only note the early use of the word Illustrious but also the prominence given to the gloves on this occasion (see Gloves).
ILLUSTRIOUS ELECT OF THE FIFTEEN
The title now generally given to the Elect of Fifteen, which see
INDEPENDENT AND REGULAR NATIONAL GRAND LODGE OF FRANCE AND THE FRENCH COLONIES
The French title of this organization is Grande Loge Nationale Indépendante et Reguliere pour la France et les Colonies Française. Grand Master D. E. Ribaucourt sent us the following information:
“Desirous of working in France outside of all compromise of political or atheistical character, some Brother French freemasons had in 1910 revived the practice of the old Rite of the Rectified Regime, which is a deistic system. This regular Rite among us had been practiced in France by numerous Lodges since the commencement of the eighteenth century. Lodges of that type have been put to sleep in France since 1841. They bequeathed their powers to the Grand Rectified Directory of Geneva, Switzerland in order that the Lodges of France should be awakened when the time was opportune.
That was done in 1910 by the Grand Rectified Directory of Geneva, which created the Respectable Rectified Lodge Le Center des Amis at the Orient of Paris. Thereupon the Grand Orient of France, preoccupied with the foundation of a new order of things, proposed to us a double Constitution guaranteeing the integrity of our Rituals of 1782, and the free exercise of the symbols of the Grand Architect of the Universe during these three years, l9l0-3, our Rite made much progress in France. In June, 1913, the Council of the Order of the Grand Orient of France violated the solemn promises of 1910 and imposed upon us new rituals, in which the opening and closing invocations had the symbol of the Grand Architect of the Universe suppressed. We carried our case before the Masonic Convent of the Grand Orient in 1913, and we were forbidden to use our old-time rituals.
The Orator of the Convent of the Grand Orient of France declared at that time amid the plaudits of the assemblage that the symbol of the Grand Architect of the Universe was contrary to the Constitution of the Grand Orient of France. To defend our menaced Masonic faith and to safeguard the traditions of our Order, we have been obliged to constitute ourselves in October, 1913, into the Independent and Regular National Grand Lodge. The Respectable Rectified Lodge, Le Centre des Amis of Paris, of which records exist as far as 1762, took the initiative and was promptly followed by the Respectable Lodge, L’Anglais No. 204, at Bordeaux, which existed in 1732. Some new Lodges have combined with us, and will adhere to the course of our action. We shall work after a just and perfect fashion in order to afford a sanctuary in France to Brothers believing in the Grand Architect of the Universe, loving and respecting His symbol, and also to resume with those abroad the chain of union so unfortunately broken between French Freemasons and those of other lands.
We have imposed and shall impose upon our Lodges the following obligations
- During the work. the Bible shall be constantly open upon the altar at the first chapter of Saint John.
- The ceremonies shall strictly conform to the Ritual of the Rectified Regime which we practice, revised in 1778 and approved in 1782.
- The communications shall always be opened and closed with the invocation and in the name of the Grand Architect of the Universe, and Lodges shall insert in a space in their announcements, documents, the inscription A. L. G. D. G. A. D. l’U, these being the initials of the French words meaning, to the glory of the Grand Architect of the Universe.
- No religious or political discussion shall be allowed in the Lodges.
- The Brethren shall never officially as a Lodge take part in political matters, but each Brother shall reserve and guard his entire liberty of action.
- Lodges of this Obedience only receive as visitors the Brethren belonging to the regular Obedience recognized by the Grand Lodge of England.
“In answer to our appeal, the Grand Lodge of England and its very Respectable Grand Master recognized us on November 20, 1913, as the only regular Masonic Power in France, and the announcement was made at the Centenary of that very Respectable Grand Lodge on December 3, 1913” (see France) .
An extensive peninsula of Southern Asia. The Grand Lodge of England authorized Brother George Pomfret in 1728 to open a Lodge in Bengal. Captain Ralph Farwinter, Pomfret’s successor, was appointed Provincial Grand Master of India in 1730. The records of this Provincial Grand Lodge are not extant but even previous to this time Lodges had been constituted at various places.
A Dutch Body, the Grand Lodge of Solomon at Chinsura, was always most friendly to the Bengal Lodge and at times the two worked a joint ceremony.
January 25, 1781, was the date of the last meeting of the Bengal Provincial Grand Lodge before the war in the Carnatic proved the cause of the downfall of all but Industry and Perseverance Lodge in Calcutta. July 18, 1785, the Provincial Grand Lodge reopened and Freemasonry began an uphill struggle to regain its former strength. In 1794 the Provincial Grand Lodge controlled nine Lodges, from the first two of which its officers were always chosen. This caused ill feeling and a secession of several Lodges took place. It disappeared for a time but was re-established in 1813 by the Earl of Moira. The Provincial Grand Master returned to England in 1826 and the loss of all proper authority gradually brought about a failure of communication between the Bengal Provincial Grand Lodge and the Grand Lodge of England.
The earlier groupings of the Lodges overseas in India and other countries were designated as in the records of the Grand Lodge as Provinces but since 1866 these have been termed Districts to distinguish them from the Provinces in England itself.
The Grand Lodge of Ireland issued a Charter for a Lodge in 1837 at Kurnaul but this did not survive.
A Lodge at Madras was chartered from England in 1755, and in 1766 a Provincial Grand Master, Captain Edmond Pascal, was appointed.
A Lodge was warranted for Bombay under English authority in 1758 and Brother James Todd was appointed Provincial Grand Master in 1763.
The Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1836 appointed Dr. James Burnes of the Indian Medical Service as Provincial Grand Master of Western India and its Dependencies, and a Provincial Grand Lodge came into being on January 1, 1838. A Provincial Grand Lodge of Eastern India was also created to control Masonic matters on behalf of the Grand Lodge of Scotland and of this Body also Doctor Burnes became the head, and in 1846 he was duly invested as Provincial Grand Master for all India. He was the author of a Sketch of the History of the Knights Templar in 1844 and was also the founder of a fraternal organization having three classes of members, Novice, Companion, and Officer, and known as the Brotherhood of the Olive Branch of the East. Natives of India joined the Craft, and Rising Star Lodge at Bombay and Saint Andrew’s Lodge at Poona were set up West and East in 1844 for that purpose and soon followed by others. Some prominent natives of India have become Freemasons. Among these are the son of the Nabob of Arcot, Umdat-ul-Umara, Prince Keyralla, Khanof Mysore, Prince Shadad Khan, the former Ameer of Scinde, Maharajah Duleep, and Maharajah Rundeer Sing.
The first Lodge in Indiana was organized at Vincennes by Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, August 27, 1807, as Sincennes Lodge, No. 15. Prior to this, however, Freemasonry had been introduced by Brethren belonging to Lodges in the army on the northwestern frontier. A Convention of representatives of the following Lodges of Ancient York Masons was held at Corydon on December 3, 1817, to consider the establishment of a Grand Lodge: Vincennes, No. 15; Lawrenceburg, No. 44; Madison Union, No. 29; Blazing Star, Is-o. 36; Melchizedeek, No. 43; Pisgah, No. 45. Three Lodges under dispensations Switzerland, Risines Sun and Brookville Harmona, also sent representatives and it was resolved to open a Grand Lodge. On January 12, 1818, arrangements were completed. The Id following day Grand Officers were elected with M. W. Alexander Buckner as Grand Master, and the Grand Constitution was adopted January 15. Since 1825 this Grand Lodge has had permanent quarters at Indianapolis but before then it met at Charlestown and elsewhere.
According to the proceedings of the General Grand Chapter on September 14, 1826, a Charter was granted to Vincennes Chapter on May 13, 1820. At the twelfth Convocation of the General Grand Chapter in 1St4, permission was granted for a Convention of Chapter representatives to assemble on November 18, 1845, and the Grand Chapter of Indiana was duly constituted on December 5, 1845. At the meeting of the General Grand Chapter the General Grand Secretary stated that, according to the records of 1819, Dispensations were said to have been granted for Chapters at Madison and Brookville which were not ratified and therefore the Chapters ceased to exist in a legal sense. They were supposed, however, to have continued their labors for some years and, with another Chapter established at Vincennes, to have organized a Grand Chapter in 1823. Of this there was no documentary evidence, but the General Grand Chapter granted Madison Chapter a legal Charter on September 12, 1844.
The Council Degrees in Indiana were at first given in the Chapter work but, after the General Grand Chapter decided in 1853 to give up control of the Cryptic Degrees, Councils were chartered by the Grand Council of Kentucky, August 30, 1854, and by the Grand Council of Ohio, October 18, 1B55. The three Councils thus organized sent delegates to a meeting on December 20, 1855, when the Grand Council of Indiana was formed.
The first Commandery to be organized in Indiana mas Roper, No. 1, at Indianapolis, which was granted a Dispensation May 14, 1848. It was chartered October 16, 1850. With three others, Greensburg, No. 2; La Fayette, No. 3, and Fort Wayne, No. 4, this Commandery organized the Grand Commandery of Indiana on May 16, 1854, by authority of the Grand Encampment.
On May 19, 1865, the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite became part of the Masonic life of Indiana when the Adoniram Lodge of Perfection, the Saraiah Council of Princes of Jerusalem, the Indianapolis Chapter of Rose Croixs and the Indiana Consistory were established at Indianapolis by the Supreme Council, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction.
An Indian or Hindu year begins in April, thus: First Vaisakha, April 13; First Jyaishtha, May 14; First Ashadha, June 14; First Sravana, July 16; First Bhadrapada, August 16; First Asvina, September 16; First Kartlika, October 17; First Agrahayana or Margasirsha, November 16; First Pansha, December 15; First Magha, January 13; First Phalguna, February 15; First Caitra, March 13. The days of the week, commencing with Sunday, are Aditya, Soma, Mangala, Budha, Guru, Sukra, and Sani. The Hindu Era, until April 13, 1885, was 1937.