Enciclopédia Mackey – JAH ~ JEHOSHAPHAT

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES
by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D. Enciclopédia

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JAH

In Hebrew M. Maimonides calls it the two-lettered name, and derives it from the Tetragrammaton, of which he says it is an abbreviation. Others have denied this, and assert that Jah is a name independent of Jehovah, but expressing the same idea of the Divine Essence. It is uniformly translated in the authorized version of the Bible by the word Lord, being thus considered as Synonymous with Jehovah, except in Psalm lxviii, 4, where the original word is preserved: “Extol Him that rideth upon the heavens by His name Jah,” upon which the Targum comment is “Extol Him who sitteth on the throne of glory in the ninth heaven; Yah is His name.” It seems, also to have been well known to the Gentile nations as the triliteral resume of God; for, although biliteral among the Hebrews, it assumed among the Greeks the triliteral form, as IAO Macrobius, in his Saturnalia, says that this was the sacred name of the Supreme Deity; and the Clarian Oracle being asked which of the gods was Jao, replied, “The initiated are bound to conceal the mysterious secrets. Learn thou that IAQ is the Great God Supreme who ruleth over all” (see Jehovah) .

JAHEB

The Hebrew word, arc, Latin concedens. A sacred name connected with the Thirteenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.

JAINA CROSS (Haken Kruis)

Used by several Orders, and found in the abbeys of Great Britain and on the monuments of India. Its significations are many. This cross was adopted by the Jainas, a heterodox sect of the Hindus, who dissent from Brahmanism and deny the Vedas, and whose adherents are found in every province of Upper Hindustan. They are wealthy and influential, and form an important division of the population of India.

This symbol is also known as the Fylfot or Swastica. It is a religious symbol mentioned by Weaver in his Funeral Monuments, by Dr. H. Schliemann as having been found in the presumed ruins of Troy, by De Rossi and others in the Catacombs of Christian Rome, and there termed the Crux dissimulata, or concealed cross. It has been found on almost every enduring monument on the globe, of all ages, and in both hemispheres.

JAINAS

See Jaina Cross

JAMAICA

Largest island in the British West Indies, forming part of the Greater Antilles. Freemasonry began in Jamaica in 1839 with the authorization by the “Moderns” Grand Lodge of England of a Lodge at liingston. The Athol Grand Lodge chartered its first Lodge here in 1763. There was no Grand Lodge of Jamaica but the Grand Lodge of England and Scotland each established a Provincial Grand Lodge on the Island. The former controlled in 1924 thirteen Lodges and the latter five.

JAMBLICHUS

It is strange that the old Freemasons, when inventing their legend, which gave so prominent a place to Pythagoras as “an ancient friend and brother,” should have entirely forgotten his biographer, Jamblichas, whose claims to their esteem and veneration are much greater than those of the Samian sage. Jamblichus was a Neoplatonic philosopher, who was born at Chalcis, in Calo, Syria, and flourished in the fourth century. He was a pupil of Porphyry, and was deeply versed in the philosophic systems of Plato and Pythagoras, and, like the latter, had studied the mystical theology of the Egyptians and Chaldeans whose divine origin and truth he attempts to vindicate.

He maintained that man, through thermic rites and ceremonies, might commune with the Deity; and hence he attached great importance to initiation as the means of inculcating truth. He carried his superstitious veneration for numbers and numerical formula to a far greater extent than did the school of Pythagoras; so that all the principles of his philosophy can be represented by numbers. Thus, he taught that one, or the monad; was the principle of all unity as well as diversity, the duad, or two, was the intellect; three, the soul; four, the principle of universal harmony; eight, the source of motion; nine, perfection; and ten, the result of all the emanations of the to en. It will thus be seen that Jamblichus, while adopting the general theory of numbers that distinguished the Pythagorean school, differed very materially in his explanations. He wrote many philosophical works on the basis of these principles, and was the author of a Life of Pythagoras, and a Treatise of the Mysteries. Of all the ancient philosophers, his system assimilates him most if not in its details, at least in its spirits to the mystical and symbolic character of the Masonic philosophy.

JAMES II AND III OF SCOTLAND

See Stuart Freemasonry

JAMINIM OR IAMINIM

The Hebrew word for water. See I .•. N .•. R .•. I .•.

JANITOR

A door-keeper. The word Sentinel which in a Royal Arch Chapter is the proper equivalent of the Tiler in a Lodge, was in some jurisdictions replaced by the word Janitor. There is no good authority for the usage.

JAPAN

A chain of islands off the east coast of Asia. An English Lodge, No. 1092, was instituted at Yokohama in 1866 and others at Sobe, Yeddo, and Tokio were soon at work. A District Grand Master was appointed in 1873. Lodges instituted by the Grand Lodge of Scotland are also at work in Sobe, Yokohama, and Nagasaki.

There is a home of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in Japan at Yokohama. A Lodge of Perfection and a Chapter of Rose Croix were both opened here under the same name, Dai Nippon, No. 1, on February 17, 1883. Des Payens Council of Kadosh, No. 1, and Grand Consistory, No. 1, were also chartered at Yokohama on March 15, 1886, all under the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction of the United States.

JAPANESE FAITH

See Kofiki; also Nihongi

JAPHET

The Hebrew spelling is no. The eldest son of Noah. It is said that the first ark—the Ark of Safety, the archetype of the Tabernacle—was constructed by Shem, Ham, and Japhet under the superintendence of Noah. Hence these are significant words to the Royal Arch Mason.

JASHER, BOOK OF

The Hebrew is Sepher havashar, The Book of the Upright. One of the lost books of the ancient Hebrews, which is quoted twice (Joshua x, 13; Second Samuel I, 18). A Hebrew minstrelsy, recording the warlike deeds of the national heroes, and singing the praises of eminent or celebrated men. An original is said to be in the library at Samarkand.

JASPER

The Hebrew is, n . A precious stone of a dullish green color, which was the last of the twelve inserted in the High Priest’s breast-plate, according to the authorized version; but the Vulgate translation more correctly makes it the third stone of the second row. It represented the Tribe of Zebulun.

JAVA

One of the larger islands of the Dutch East Indies in Asia, in that portion of the Malay Archipelago known as the Sunda Island. A Dutch Provincial, Grand Lodge, under the Grand Orient of the Netherlands, at Waltevreden controlled in 1922 twenty Lodges of which fourteen were in Java itself, three in Sumatra and the rest at Kedivi, Makassar and Salatigo.

JEBUSITE

See Ornan

JEDADIAH

A special name given to King Solomon at his birth. It signifies beloved of God.

JEHOSHAPHAT

East of Jerusalem, between Mount Zion and the Mount of Olives, lies the Valley of Jehoshaphat. In the most recent instructions this word has lost its significance. but in the older ones it played an important part. There was in reality no such valley in ancient Judea, nor is there any mention of it in Scripture, except once by the Prophet Joel. The name is altogether modern. But, as the Hebrew means the judgment of God! and as the prophecy of Joel declared that God would there judge the heathen for their deeds against the Israelites, it came at last to be believed by the Jews, which belief is shared by the Mohammedans, that the Valley of Jehoshaphat is to be the place of the last judgment. Hence it was invested with a peculiar degree of sanctity as a holy place. The idea was borrowed by the Freemasons of the eighteenth century, who considered it as the symbol of holy ground. Thus, in the earliest instructions we find this language: Where does the Lodge stand? Upon holy ground, or the highest hill or lowest vale, or in the Valley of Jehoshaphat, or any other secret place. This reference to the Valley of Jehoshaphat as the symbol of the Ground Floor of the Lodge was in the United States retained until a very recent period; and the expression alluding to it in the instructions of the Second Degree has only within a comparatively few years past been abandoned. Hutchinson referred to this symbolism, when he said that the Spiritual Lodge was placed in the Valley of Jehoshaphat to imply that the principles of Freemasonry are derived from the knowledge of God, and are established in the judgments of the Lord.

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