ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES
by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D.
A Latinized spelling of Chasidim, which see.
Greek, The ceremony of purification in the Ancient Mysteries. Muller says that one of the important parts of the Pythagorean worship was the poean, which was sung to the lyre in spring-time by a person sitting in the midst of a circle of listeners: this was called the Catharsis or purification” (Dorians I, 384).
Secret society in the Philippine Islands. See Philippine Islands.
KEEPER OF THE SEALS
An officer called Garde des Sceaul; in Lodges of the French Rite. It is also the title of an officer in Consistories of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. The title sufficiently indicates the functions of the office.
Duke de Valmy, born 1770, died 1835. Member of the Supreme Council and Grand Officer of Honor of the Grand Orient of France; elected 1814. Served in the battles of Marengo, Austerlitz, and Waterloo.
A Masonic plagiarist, who stole bodily the whole of the typical part of the celebrated work of Samuel Lee entitled Orbis Miraculum, or The Temple of Solomon Portrayed by Scripture fight, and published it as his own under the title of Solomon’s Temple spiritualized; setting forth the Divine Mysteries of the Temple, with an account of its Destruction. He prefaced the book with An Address to all Free and Accepted Masons. The first edition was published at Dublin in 1803, and on his removal to America he published a second in 1820, at Philadelphia. Kelly was, unfortunately, a Freemason, but not an honest one. Brother Woodford points out that all such works seem to be founded on John Bunyan’s Solomon’s Temple Spiritualized. Bunyan died in 1688 but the popularity of his work was shown by the eighth edition of this book appearing in 1727.
KENNING’S MASONIC CYCLOPEDIA
Edited by Rev. A. F. A. Woodford, in London, contemporaneously with the encyclopedia of Dr. A. G. Mackey, in the United States, but published by the well-known Brother George Kenning, London, to whom the work is dedicated in affectionate terms. Kenning’s Cyclopedia is rendered unusually invaluable in consequence of the fulness of its bibliography. Kloss’s well-known Bibliographer der Freimaurer does not become so great a necessity, having Kenning yet other subjects have not been permitted to suffer in consequence of the numerous short biographical sketches. The work is an admirably arranged octavo of nearly seven hundred pages.
KENT, EDWARD AUGUSTUS, DUKE OF
Duke of Strathearn also. Born November 7, 1767, fourth son of George III, England. Father of Queen Victoria. Initiated in 1790 at Geneva and was elected Grand Master of the Ancient December 27, 1813, credited with effecting the union of the two English Grand Lodfres. He died January 20, 1820.
Until the year 1792, when Kentucky became a separate and distinct State, jurisdiction over its Lodges was exercised by Virginia. On November 17, 1788, Lexington Lodge was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Virginia. Four other Lodges, namely, Paris, Georgetown, Hiram, and Abraham’s, were chartered at various times by the same Body. Representatives of the five Lodges met at Lexington, September 8, 1800, and determined to establish a Grand Lodge of Kentucky. A second Convention met on October 16, and elected Grand Officers who duly opened the Grand Lodge.
Dispensations for Chapters at Lexington, Frankfort, and Shelbyville were issued by Companion Thomas Smith Web Deputy General Grand High Priest, on October 16, 1816. These Chapters according to the Proceedings of the fifth regular Convocation of the General Grand Chapter of the United States formed a Grand Chapter in 1817 under the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter. At its annual Convocation in Lexington, the Grand Chapter of Kentucky advocated the dissolution of the General Grand Chapter, and in 1857 actually seceded from that Body. It was announced, however, at the twenty-second triennial Convocation of the General Grand Chapter held on November 24, 1874, that it had renewed its allegiance.
When Jeremy L. Cross made his official tour through the Western States in 1816 as General Grand Lecturer of the General Grand Chapter, he established the Select Degree in this State and, on his return in 1817, sent Charters to the Companions at Lexington and Shelbyville, dating them from the time when the Degrees were conferred A meeting was held on December 10, 1827, to establish a Grand Council. Representatives of six Councils were present, namely: Washington, No. 1; Warren, No. 2; Center, No. 3; Louisville, No. 4; Frankfort, No. 5, and Versaiiies, No. 6. Where the Councils obtained their Warrants is not known, though it is thought that John Barker organized them in September, 1827. The Anti. Masonic period affected the Craft in Kentucky to some considerable extent and the Grand Council only met once in 1841. From 1878 to 1881 the Degrees were included in the Chapter work but in 1881, after the organization of the General Grand Council, the Grand Council of Kentucky was reorganized. On October 14, 1912, it affiliated with the General Grand Council as a constituent member.
Webb, No. 1, at Lexington, was the first Commandery to begin work in Kentucky. It was authorized by Charter dated January 1 1826, but this was probably a Charter of Recognition as there is in existence a copy of the original Proceedings of Webb Encampsment, with a list of members as of January 1, 1819. A Dispensation was issued by John Snow on the following December 28, and a Charter on January 1, 1820. The Grand Commandery in Kentucky, authorized by Warrant from the Grand Encampment dated September 14, 1847, was constituted on October 5, at Frankfort. Its subordinate Commanderies were Webb, No.1; Louisville, No. 2; Versailles, No. 3; Frankfort, No. 4, and Montgomery, No. 5. On August 8, 1859, four Bodies of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, were chartered at Louisville: Union Lodge of Perfection, No. 1; Pelican Chapter of Rose Croix, No. 1; Kilwinning Council of Kadosh, No. 1, and Grand Consistory, No. 1.
British East Africa where the Grand Lodges of England and Scotland have each chartered a Lodge at Nairobi in this district.
“The Key,” says Doctor Oliver (Landmarks I, page 180), “is one of the most important symbols of Freemasonry. It bears the appearance of a common metal instrument, confined to the performance of one simple act. But the well-instructed brother beholds in it the symbol which teaches him to keep a tongue of good report, and to abstain from the debasing vices of slander and defamation.” Among the ancients the key was a symbol of silence and circumspection; and thus Sophocles alludes to it in the Oedipus Coloneus (line 105), where he makes the chorus speak of “the golden key which had come upon the tongue of the ministering Hierophant in the mysteries of Eleusis—Callimachus says that the Priestess of Ceres bore a key as the ensign of her mystic office. The key was in the Mysteries of Isis a hieroglyphic of the opening or disclosing of the heart and conscience, in the kingdom of death, for trial and Judgment.
In the old instructions of Freemasonry the key was an important symbol, and Doctor Oliver regrets that it has been abandoned in the modern system. In the ceremonies of the First Degree, in the eighteenth century allusion is made to a key by whose help the secrets of Freemasonry are to be obtained, which key “is said to hang and not to lie, because it is always to hang in a brother’s defense and not to lie to his prejudge.” It was said, too, to hang “by the thread of life at the entrance, ” and was closely connected with the heart, because the tongue “ought to utter nothing but what the heart dictates.” And, finally, this key is described as being “composed of no metal, but a tongue of good report.” In the ceremonies of the Masters Degree in the Adonhiramite Rite, we find this catechism (in the Recueil Précieu:, page 87):
What do you conceal?
All the secrets which have been intrusted to me.
Where do you conceal them?
In the heart.
Have you a key to gain entrance there?
Yes, Right Worshipful.
Where do you keep it?
In a box of coral which opens and shuts only with ivory teeth.
Of what metal is it composed?
Of none. It is a tongue obedient to reason, which knows only how to speak well of those of whom it speaks in their absence as in their presence.
All of this shows that the key as a symbol was formerly equivalent to the modern symbol of the “instructive tongue,” which, however, with almost the same interpretation, has now been transferred to the Second or Fellow-Craft’s Degree. The key, however, is still preserved as a symbol of secrecy in the Royal Arch Degree; and it is also presented to us in the same sense in the ivory key of the Secret Master, or Fourth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. In many of the German Lodges an ivory key is made a part of the Masonic clothing of each Brother, to remind him that he should lock up or conceal the secrets of Freemasonry in his heart. But among the ancients the key was also a symbol of power; and thus among the Greeks the title of Kxeiaouxos~ or key-bearer, was bestowed upon one holding high office; and with the Romans, the keys are given to the bride on the day of marriage, as a token that the authority of the house was bestowed upon her; and if afterward divorced, they were taken from her, as a symbol of the deprivation of her office, Among the Hebrews the key was used in the same sense. “As the robe and the baldric,” says Lowth (Israel, part ii, section 4), “were the ensigns of power and authority, so likewise was the key the mark of office, either sacred or civil.” Thus in Isaiah (xxii, 22), it is said: “The key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulders; so he shall open, and none shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open” Our Savior expressed a similar idea when he said to Saint Peter, “I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven.” It is in reference to this interpretation of the symbol, and not that of secrecy, that the key has been adopted as the official jewel of the Treasurer of a Lodge, because he has the purse, the source of power, under his command.
KEY OF MASONRY
See Knight of the Sun