Enciclopédia Mackey – CARAUSIUS ~ CERES

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by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D. Enciclopédia



A Roman emperor, who assumed the purple 287 A.D. Of him Preston gives the following account, which may or may not be deemed apocryphal, according to the taste and inclination of the reader: “By assuming the character of a Freemason, he acquired the love and esteem of the most enlightened part of his subjects.

He possessed real merit, encouraged learning and learned men, and improved the country in the civil arts. In order to establish an empire in Britain, he brought into his dominions the best workmen and artificers from all parts ; all of whom, under his auspices, enjoyed peace and tranquillity. Among the first class of his favorites he enrolled the Freemasons: for their tenets he professed the highest veneration, and appointed Albanus, his steward, the principal superintendent of their assemblies. Under his patronage, Lodges and Conventions of the Fraternity were formed, and the rites of Freemasonry regularly practiced. To enable the Freemasons to hold a general council, to establish their own government and correct errors among themselves, he granted to them a charter, and commanded Albanus to preside over them in person as Grand Master” (see Illustrations, edition of 1812, page 142).

Anderson also gives the legend of Carausius in the second edition of his Constitutions, and adds that “this is asserted by all the old copies of the Constitutions, and the old English Masons firmly believed it” (Constitutions, 1738, page 57). But the fact is that Anderson himself does not mention the tradition in his first edition, published in 1723 nor is any reference to Carausius to be found in any of the old manuscripts now extant. The legend is, it is true, inserted in Krause’s Manuscript ; but this document is of Very little authority, having been, most probably, a production of the early part of the eighteenth century, and of a contemporary of Anderson, written perhaps between 1723 and 1738, which would account for the omission of it in the first edition of the Book of Constitutions, and its insertion in the second.

The reader may hence determine for himself what authenticity is to be given to the Carausian legend.


The name in Italian means Charcoal Burners, applied to some revolutionary secret societies particularly active in Italy and France, having their principal inspiration during the reign of King Joachim Murat of Naples, and aiming to free themselves from foreign rule and establish democratic government. Murat, a Frenchman and a Freemason, the dashing cavalry leader of Napoleon’s army, was rewarded with the throne. Luigi Villari says (Encyclopedia Britannica): ”The Carbonari were probably an offshoot of the Freemasons, from whom they differed in important particulars,” a suggestion and admission meaning little more than similarity, both being secret societies. However, the Carbonari had its significant words: a Lodge was baracca or a hut; an ordinary meeting was venidita, a sale; an important meeting, alta vendita; God was Grand Master of the Universe. The ritual had four grades and the ceremonies had typical allusions, as “clearing the forest of wolves” was said to be the aim, and there were references to the 1amb torn by wild animals, tyranny. Carbonarism was declared high treason by 1821. While many prominent persons were members, Lord Byron of England and Louis, afterwards Napoleon III, of France, yet the strength of the movement waned and died in France about 1830, and soon afterwards a like end came to it in Italy, the Camorristi in the former country accepting generally the government then at work, and in the latter instance associating with Mazzini and his followers (see Camorra, Mafia, and Secret Societies).


In Hebrew, baw-rek-ath, the third stone in the first row of the high priest’s breastplate, according to the authorized version, but the first stone in the second row, according to the Septuagint. Braun, a writer on the sacerdotal vestments of the Hebrews, Amsterdam, 1680 supposes that the baw-rek-ath was a smaragd.us or emerald, which view is sustained by Kalisch, and is in accordance with the Septuagint translation. The Talmudists derive baw-rek-ath from a word signifying to shine with the brightness of fire, which would seem to indicate some stone of a coruscate or sparkling color, and would apply to the bright green of the emerald as well as to the bright red of the carbuncle. The stone, whatever it was, was referred to the tribe of Judah.
The carbuncle in Christian iconography signifies blood and suffering, and is symbolical of the Lord’s passion. Five carbuncles placed on a cross symbolize the five wounds of Christ.


The North, West, East and South are so called from the Latin cardo, meaning a hinge, because they are the principal points of the compass on which all the others hinge or hang.

Each of them has a symbolic signification in Freemasonry which will be found under their respective heads. Doctor Brinton, in an interesting Treatise on the Symbolism and Mythology of the Red Race of America, has a chapter on the sacred number four; the only one he says, that has any prominence in the religious of the red race, and which he traces to the four cardinal points. The reason, he declares, is to be “found in the adoration of the cardinal points,” and he attributes to this cause the prevalence of the cross as a symbol among the aborigines of America, the existence of which so surprised the early missionaries that they “were in doubt whether to ascribe the fact to the pious labors of Saint Thomas or the sacrilegious subtlety of Satan.”

The arms of the cross referred to the cardinal points, and represented the four winds, the bringers of rain. The theory is an interesting one, and the author supports it with many ingenious illustrations. In the symbolism of Freemasonry each of the cardinal points has a mystical meaning. The East represents Wisdom ; the west, Strength; the South, Beauty and the North, Darkness.


The pre-eminent or principal virtues on which all the others hinge or depend.

They are temperance, fortitude, prudence, and justice.

They are referred to in the ritual of the Entered Apprentice Degree, and will be found in this work under their respective heads. Oliver says (Revelations of a Square, chapter 1) that in the eighteenth century the Freemasons delineated the symbols of the four cardinal virtues by an acute angle variously disposed.

Thus, suppose you face the east, the angle symbolizing temperance will point to the south.
It was called a Guttural.

Fortitude was denoted by a saltire, or Saint Andrew’s Cross, X. This was the Pectoral.

The symbol of prudence was an acute angle pointing toward the southeast, and was denominated a Manual; and justice had its angle toward the north, and was called a Pedestal or Pedal.

The possession of cardinal virtues is no special distinction of Freemasons, for other societies have had them.

They are in evidence in the Christian church.

The fifteen cardinal virtues, in mosaic, in the dome of Ascension of Saint Mark’s at Venice is a famous example.


A name sometimes applied to the whole of the West Indies, strictly comprising only the chain of islands from Porto Rico to the Venezuelan coast of South America. Three Lodges were at work in 1739 at Antigua. Others had been chartered and were on the Grand Lodge Books but they had ceased to exist and were dropped from the Register.

In 1738 Governor Matthews was appointed by the Grand Lodge of England Provincial Grand Master of the Leeward Islands. A Masonic Province was also established by Scotland in 1769. A Provincial Grand Lodge was opened at the Windward Islands in 1740 and Brother Thomas Baxter was first Provincial Grand Master.

In the same year the “Moderns” Grand Lodge of England authorized Lodge No. 186. The Grand Lodge of Ireland established another Provincial Grand Lodge at Barbados, but it was soon abandoned.

A Lodge, Albion, was opened at Bridgetown, Barbados, in 1790 by the “Ancient” and it remained in existence although three others warranted by the same authority’ soon ceased work. Other Lodges were chartered in the Islands by the Grand Lodges of England, Holland, France, Pennsylvania, etc.


A printer and bookseller of London, who in 1819 was fined and imprisoned for the publication of Paine’s Age of Reason, and Palmer’s Light of Nature.

He also wrote and published several pretended expositions of Freemasonry, which, after his death, were collected, in 1845, in one volume, under the title of a Manual of Freemasonry, in three parts.

Carlile was a professed atheist, and, although a fanatical reformer of what he supposed to be the errors of the age, was a man of some ability.

His Masonic works are interspersed with considerable learning, and are not as abusive of the Order as expositions generally are. He was born in 1790, and died in 1843, in London. For ten years before his death his religious opinions had been greatly modified.


Monks of an Order established on Mount Carmel, in Syria, during the twelfth century. They wore a brown scapular passing over the shoulder and diagonally across the back and body, thus crossing the gown from right to left.


Grand Master of England, March, 1754, to May 18, 1757. Afterwards known as Duke of Chandos.


An organized body in Holland and Belgium, with central point of assembly at Antwerp. Their gatherings were at night in some neighboring forest.


The chart or Tracing Board on which the emblems of a degree are depicted for the instruction of a candidate.

Carpets were originally drawn on the floor with chalk or charcoal, and at the close of the Lodge obliterated by the use of a mop and pail.

To avoid this trouble, they were subsequently painted on cloth, which was laid on the floor ; hence they were called carpets.

Carpets, or charts, as they are at the present time commonly designated, are now generally suspended from the wall, or from a framework in the Lodge (see Steps on Master’s Carpet).


Initiated in 1846 and became Past Master of Cynthia Lodge No. 155, as well as founder and First Worshipful Master of Kilwinning Lodge, No. 356, warranted in 1865, both Lodges being at Cincinnati, Ohio, and he was active and scholarly in all branches of the Fraternity. He printed at his own expense several important works of interest and value to the Fraternity.

The first facsimile of the Book of Constitutions of 1723 was published by him in 1855 from the copy in his own library and in the same year he had a catalog of his collection printed in the American Freemason at Louisville.

Doctor Oliver’s Historical Landmarks was also issued in like manner in 1855.

He established the Masonic Archeological Society, of wich he was really the whole organization and mainspring and which did good work, producing the very rare works, the Grand Mystery of1724 and Prichard’s Masonry Dissected, of 1730, and publishing them iu 1868.

Eight years later, what is known as Mrs. Dodds Manuscripts of 1739 was issued. In 1889 an artistic facsimile reproduction of the very valuable engraved list of 1736 by Pine was published by him and from 1872 he was at work on the production of a sumptuous catalog of his Masonic library, which was begun in the Masonic Review of Cincinnati and then reprinted in book form from 1874.

It was not completed, however, much to the regret of his many friends, the important bibliography ending with No. 1134 Picart, pages 1 to 224.

Brother Carson also wrote and published much other material respecting the Craft, and, as with the previously mentioned books, all was at his own expense; the whole of the works being presented to his literary friends and Brethren.

He died on February 23, 1899.

His fine library is now, through the generosity of General Lawrence, possessed by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts.


Famous American scout, born in Madison County, Kentucky, December 24, 1809. In his childhood, his parents moved to Missouri.

Carson became guide and hunter, accompanied the Fremont expeditions, took part in the Mexican War, and become Indian Agent at Taos, New Mexico, in 1854.

Made a Master Mason on December 26, 1854, in Montezuma Lodge at Santa Fe, in what was then a Territory but is now the State of New Mexico, Montezuma Lodge was No, 109 on the roster of the Grand Lodge of Missouri and was one of the Lodges organizing the Grand Lodge of New Mexico in 1877.

He demitted from this Lodge on April 30, 1860, but affiliated again a few years later and remained a member until his death which occurred, May 24, 1868, at Santa Fe, New Mexico. The Grand Lodge of Arizona has taken charge of the grave lot and the monument which was erected to this early American, pioneer (see also New Age Magazine, May, 1925).


A religious Order founded by Bruno in 1080, and named from Chartreux, in France, the place of their institution.

They were noted for their austerity.


An officer who has charge of the register or other books of record.


Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England, March 10, 1752, to 1754


Usually mentioned by the word Casanova An Italian adventurer, born at Venice, 1725, died in Bohemia 1798, noted particularly for his Memoirs, a spirited boastful autobiography so romantic and improbable in his numerous detailed successes among the opposite sex that doubt attaches to almost all his claims. Allowing freely for the widespread social evils of his day, we shall the better understand his sneering frankness about vice. Several reliable authorities agree that his eleven writings are trustworthy accounts of the morals and manners of the society he usually frequented.

Among his acquaintances were the most notable people, Rousseau, D’Eon, Frederick the Great, Suvaroff, Empress Catherine of Russia, Voltaire, Cagliostro, and as a prominent Roman Catholic, he received from the Pope the distinction of the Order of the Golden Spur.

Expelled from school, he entered the service of Cardinal Acquavisa, began his travels; returning to Venice in 1755, was denounced as a spy and imprisoned; escaped to Paris and gained a fortune directing the State Lotteries, again traveled to Florence; whence he was banished, thence to Rome.

After further journeys he was. forced to flee from. Poland.

Arriving at Paris he found a warrant for his arrest awaiting him and he took refuge in Spain, but was ejected from Madrid in 1769, and going again to Italy was exiled from Venice, ending his turbulent career as librarian from 1785 to his death in 1798 at Dux in Bohemia. Here he wrote his famous Memoirs, published first in twelve volumes at Leipzig and then in eight at Paris.

Brilliant as any romantic fiction, their worth as sober truth has not been above suspicion and his acknowledged exploits in knavery demonstrate that anything he said or did was subject to question.

Casanova claims to have been initiated in the latter part of 1750 at Lyons, on his way to Paris, where he was made a Master Mason.

At Venice in 1755 he was arrested on charges of sorcery and of being a Freemason, his Masonic clothing being found by police and deemed incriminating.

Not only does he tell of meeting prominent Freemasons in various countries but in Rome itself he asserts that several prelates and cardinals were secretly members of the Craft.

References to the Craft are sprinkled freely through his Memoirs, one of them (pages 276-9, Librarie Garnier Freres edition in French, Paris, tome II, chapter xiii) we translate as follows:

At Lyons there was an estimable personage with whom I became acquainted through M. de Rochebaron, and who obtained the favor for me of being admitted to participate in the sublime trifles of Freemasonry. Arriving as an Apprentice at Paris, some months afterwards, I there planned to become a Fellow Craft and Master.

The Master is certainly the supreme degree of Freemasonry, for all the others that are in the series taken by me are only pleasing inventions which, good enough in symbolism, add nothing to the dignity of Master.

There is no one person in the world who may succeed in knowing everything, but men sensible of their faculties and who know how to take account the more closely of their moral powers, should seek to know all that is possible. A young man, well born, who plans to travel and acquaint himself with the world, and what we call society, who does not wish to find himself in certain circumstances the inferior of his equals and to be excluded from participation in all their pleasures, ought to have himself initiated into what they call Freemasonry, even though it would only be to know superficially what it is.

Freemasonry is an Institution of Benevolence which, in certain times and in certain places, may serve as a pretext for plots criminal and subversive of good order; but good God, what has not been abused? Have not the Jesuits been seen, under the sacred guise of religion, to furnish weapons for the parricidal arms of blind enthusiasts to strike Kings’? All men of some importance, I wish to say those whose social existence is marked by merit, knowledge or fortune, should be Freemasons, and a great number are ; why infer that the democratic communications, where the members impose on themselves the law of never speaking intramuros (within the walls in a tiled place) neither of politics, religion, nor government, who only converse about emblems, or morals, or puerilities; why infer, I say, that these reunions where the governments may have their creatures, can offer such dangers that Sovereigns forbid therein and that popes entertain themselves by excommunicating?

Besides that it is a failure of purpose and the Pope, notwithstanding his infallibility, trips up himself by the persecutions, giving only to Freemasonry an importance that it would never perhaps have acquired without them. Mystery is in the nature of man, and all that presents itself to the crowd under a mysterious aspect always excites curiosity and will be sought, many convinced that there something substantial awaits them. though the veil often hides but a zero. After all, I advise every well-born young man who wishes to see the world to be accepted a Freemason, but I urge him to choose well the Lodge; for, although bad company cannot work in the Lodge, it may however be found there, and the candidate ought to guard himself from dangerous associations.

Men who only plan to be accepted as Freemasons, with the purpose of coming to know the secret of the Order, run great risk of growing old under the trowel without ever attaining their object. However, there is a secret but it is so inviolable that it has never been told nor confided to anyone.

Those who grasp at the superficiality of things believe that the secret consists in words, signs and grips, or that in the final analysis it is the grand word of the last degree. A mistake!

He who discovers the secret of Freemasonry, for they never know where they are finding it, will not arrive at that knowledge by reason of frequenting Lodges.

He gains it only by the strength of reflecting, of reasoning, of comparing, and of deducing. He will not confide it to his best friend in Freemasonry, for he knows that if that brother does not find it for himself as did he, the friend will not have the talent to extract the means to do so from what shall be said in the ear.

He who has it remains silent and this secret is always secret.

All that is done in the Lodge ought to be secret; but those who by dishonest indiscretion make no scruple of revealing what is done there, have never revealed the essential: they do not know. it; and if they have not known, truly they cannot reveal the ceremonies.

The sensation experienced today by the profane, that is to say by those who are not Freemasons, is of the same kind as that experienced in times of yore by those who were not admitted to the mysteries that were celebrated at Eleusis in honor of the goddess Cérés. But the mysteries of Eleusis interested all Greece, and all they had there of eminence then in society aspired to be made a party to them : so it is with Freemasonry., in the midst of a great number of men of premier merit, enclosed by a crowd of scamps that no society would acknowledge, because they are the rubbish of the human species under the moral accounting.

In the mysteries of Cérés they long kept an impenetrable silence to cause the reverence of which these mysteries were the object.

Moreover, what could they reveal? The three words that the hierophant said to the initiates! But to what would that lead? To the dishonor of the indiscreet, because he would only reveal barbarous language unknown by the vulgar, the common herd.

I have read somewhere what is meant by the three sacred and secret words of the mysteries of Eleusis : Be watchful and do nu evil.

The sacred and secret words of the several Masonic degrees are nearly all as criminal!

The Eleusian initiation lasted nine days; the ceremonies very impressive, and the company very respectable. Plutarch informs us that Alcibiades was condemned to death and all his goods confiscated for having dared in company with Polition and Theodore against the Eumolpides to turn into ridicule the great mysteries.

They even intended that Alcibiades should be cursed by the priests and priestesses.

But the curse was never uttered because a priestess opposed it, saying. ” I am a priestess for blessing, not cursing.” Sublime words!

Here is a lesson of morality and of wisdom that the Pope despises, but the Gospels taught and the Savior of the world ordained.

There is an allusion (page 286, tome VIII, chapter xi) to the prominent Roman Catholics of the eighteenth century ignoring privately in practice what they said publicly and officially against Freemasonry.
Of course there are instances of Roman Catholics of prominence being admitted openly into Masonic Lodges during that century- and later. Daniel O’Connell, the Liberator, as he was called, also active in the Grand Lodge of Ireland, found the two pursuits, Roman Catholicism and Freemasonry, were deemed inconsistent and he eventually resigned his membership in the Craft. But others, as the Abbe Cordier at Paris, a leader in the famous Lodge of the Nine Sisters, and with Benjamin Franklin, supporting Voltaire when he was initiated, paid little or no heed to the threats from the head of the Roman Catholic Church against Freemasonry.

‘What Casanova says gives a hint as to the position of those attempting to be on both sides of the fence and his introduction of a Prince of the Roman Catholic Church as a Freemason is a curious commentary on the situation in question:

The first day of the year 1772, I presented myself to the Cardinal Brancafarte, Legate of the Pope, who I had known at Paris twenty years previously when he was sent by Benoit (Benedict XIV) to carry the blessed linen clothes to the new-born Duke de Bourgoyne. We had been together in a Lodge of Freemasons, for the members of the Sacred College who thundered against the Freemasons knew well that their anathemas (solemn curses) impressed only the weak, whom a too lively light might dazzle.


The Angel of Air. Referred to in the Degree of Scottish Knight of Saint Andrew. The etymology is uncertain.


A corruption of acacia, which undoubtedly arose from the common habit, among illiterate people, of sinking the sound of the letter A in the pronunciation of any word of which it constitutes the initial syllable, as pothecary for apothecary, and prentice for apprentice, The word prentice, by the way, is almost altogether used in the old records of Freemasonry, which were, for the most part, the productions of uneducated men. Unfortunately, however, the corruption of acacia into cassia has not always been confined to the illiterate; but the long employment of the corrupted form has at length introduced it, in some instances, among a few of our writers. Even Doctor Oliver has sometimes used the objectionable corruption, notwithstanding he has written so much upon the symbolism of the acacia.

He refers to the Sprig of Cassia in Revelations of a Square.

There is a plant which was called by the ancients cassia, but it is entirely- different from the acacia.

The acacia was a sacred plant; the caisson ignoble plant, having no sacred character. The former is in Freemasonry profoundly symbolic; the latter has no symbolism whatever.

The cassia is only three times mentioned in Scripture, but always as an aromatic plant forming a portion of some perfume.

There is, indeed, strong reason for believing that the cassia was only a coarse kind of cinnamon, and that it did not grow in Palestine, but was imported from the East.

Casia, therefore, has no rightful place in Masonic language, and its use should be avoided as a vulgar corruption.


In Germany, the Superintendent or Steward of a Lodge building, in which he resides.
He is either a serving brother or an actual member of the Lodge, and has the care of the building and its contents.


The twelfth of the thirty-nine General Regulations prescribes that “All matters are to be determined in the Grand Lodge by a majority of votes, each member having one vote and the Grand Master having two votes” (see Constitutions, 1723, page 61). From this law has arisen the practice of giving to the Master of the Lodge a costing vote in addition to his own when there is a tie.

“The custom is so universal, and has been so long practiced, that, although I can find no specific law on the subject, the right may be considered as established by prescription” says Doctor Mackey.

But there are exceptions.

These are given in the revised edition of Doctor Mackey’s Jurisprudence of Freemasonry (chapter iii).

It may be remarked that the Masonic usage is probably’ derived from the custom of the London Livery Companies or Gilds, where the casting vote has always been given by the presiding officers in all cases of equality, a rule that has been recognized by Act of Parliament.


A grotto for burial; a sepulchral vault.

A subterranean place for the burial of the dead, consisting of galleries or passages with recesses excavated at their sides for tombs.

Later applied in the plural to all the subterranean cemeteries lying around Rome which, after having been long covered up and forgotten, were fortuitously discovered in 1578.

They are found elsewhere, as, at Naples, at Syracuse, in Egypt, at Paris, etc.

The term is chiefly applied to those lying about Rome, the principal ones lying along the Appian Way.

The accompanying engraving shows a small portion of the Northern section of the Catacomb of Saint Calixtus.

There seems to have been no plan for these excavations, for they shoot off in the most unexpected directions, forming such a labyrinth of connected passages that persons often have been lost for several days at a time, giving the monk attendants much trouble.

They are several miles in extent.

Those about Rome are under the care of various monks of the church, and are a source of considerable revenue from tourists.

They are now entered by narrow passages and some, as in the case of Saint Calixtus, descend to considerable depth.

Along the passages are small chambers at the sides for tombs, one above another, each of which generally closed by a slab of stone on which was placed the letters D. M., the initials of Dea Maximo, or X. P., the Greek letters for Christ. Tombs of saints bore inscriptions of identification.

The passages are generally three or four feet wide and were at intervals along their course enlarged into chambers, usually square or rectangular, that were used for worship. One in Saint Calixtus was an irregu1ar semicircle and about thirty-two feet in diameter.

In these chambers is usually found a stone bench or chair for the bishop or teacher.
They were ventilated and partially fighted by shafts that extended to the surface of the ground. Some frescoes were found on the walls.

Many catacambs were destroyed and traces of them lost when the Goths, Lombards, and others besieged Rome at various times.

The foregoing would not justify a place in a work of this character, were it not for the influence it sheds on the beginning of Christian architecture, as for three centuries Pagan Rome would not permit Christians to meet above ground.

The Twenty-sixth Degree in the Ancient and Accepted Rite refers to catacombs (see also Labyrinth).


From an Italian word meaning scaffold. A temporary structure of wood, appropriately decorated with funereal symbols and representing a tomb or cenotaph. It forms a part of the decorations of a Sorrow Lodge, and is also used in the ceremonies of the Master Mason’s Degree in Lodges of the French Rite.


Questions not included in the Catechism, but adopted from an early period to try the pretensions of a stranger, such as this used by American Freemasons: “Where does the Master hang his hat?” and by the French, “Comment êtes vous entré dans le Temple de Salomon (how are -you admitted into the Temple of Solomon)?”

Such as these are of course unsanctioned by authority.

But Doctor Oliver, in an essay on this subject preliminary to the fourth volume of his Golden Remains, gives a long list of these “additional tests,” which had been reduced to a kind of system, and were practiced by the English Freemasons of the eighteenth century. Among them were such as these : “What is the punishment of a cowan?” “What does this stone smell of?” “If a brother were lost, where would you look for him?” “How blows a Mason’s wind?” and many others of the same kind.

Of these tests or catch questions, Doctor Oliver says “that they were something like the conundrums of the present day-difficult of comprehension; admitting only of one answer, which appeared to have no direct correspondence with the question, and applicable only in consonance with the mysterious terms and symbols of the Institution.”

Catch questions in the United States, at least, seem to be getting out of use, and some of the most learned Freemasons at the present day would find it difficult to answer them.


From the earliest times the oral instructions of Freemasonry have been communicated in a catechetical form.

Each degree has its peculiar catechism, the knowledge of which constitutes what is called a bright Freemason.

The catechism, indeed, should be known to every Freemason, for every aspirant should be thoroughly instructed in that of the degree to which he has attained before he is permitted to make further progress.

The rule, however, is not rigidly observed; and many Freemasons, unfortunately, are very ignorant of all but the rudimentary parts of their catechism, which they derive only from hearing portions of it communicated at the opening and closing of the Lodge, or from careless Brethren freely using Masonic expressions publicly.


One who had attained the Second Degree of the Essenian or early Christian Mysteries and assumed the name of Canstans.

There were three degrees in the ceremonies, which, to a limited extent, resembled the Pagan services.

Of the three classes, the first were Auditors, the second Catechumens, and the third the Faithful.

The Auditors were novices, prepared by ceremonies and instruction to receive the dogmas of Christianity.

A portion of these dogmas was made known to the Catechumens, who, after particular purifications, received baptism, or the initiation of the theogenesis Divine regeneration; but in the grand mysteries of that religion-the incarnation, nativity, passion, and resurrection of Christ-none were initiated but the Faithful.

The Mysteries were divided into two parts -the first, styled the Mass of the Catechumens; the second, the Mass af the Faithful.

Many beautiful ceremonies and much instruction touching these matters will be found in that most enticing Degree called Prince of Mercy, and known as the Twenty-sixth in the Scottish Rite services.


If a rope be suspended loosely by its two ends, the curve into which it falls is called a catenarian curve, and this inverted forms the catenarian arch, which is said to be the strongest of all arches. As the form of a symbolic Lodge is an oblong square, that of a Royal Arch Chapter, according to the English Ritual, is a catenarian arch.


Catharinc the Great, Empress of Russia, in 1762, prohibited by an edict all Masonic meetings in her dominions.

But subsequently better sentiments prevailed, and having learned the true character of the Institution, she not only revoked her order of prohibition, but invited the Freemasons to re-establish their Lodges and to constitute new ones, and went so far in 1763 as to proclaim herself the Protectress of the Order and Tutrice of the Lodge of Clio at Moscow (see Thory, Acta Latamorum, 1, 82),

During the remainder of her reign Freemasonry was in a flourishing condition in Russia, and many of the nobles organized Lodges in their palaces. But in 1794 her feelings changed and she became suspicious that the Lodges of Moscow were intriguing against the Court and the Ministers ; this idea, coupled with the horrors of the French Revolution and other crimes said to be due to secret societies, caused her to cease to protect the Order, and without any express prohibition emanating from her, the Lodges ceased to work (see Thory, Acta Latomorum, 1, 195). She died November 6, 1796, and in 1797 her successor, Paul I, forbade all secret societies in Russia.


“The use of the word Cathedral is improper as applied to Scottish Rite buildings. It is only in recent years that the word has come into use in this Jurisdiction, presumably from the purchase of some church building by Scottish Rite Bodies, and remodeling it to Scottish Rite uses.

Strictly speaking, the Cathedral is the Bishop’s Church ; that is, there may be many Churches in the diocese of a Bishop, but the one he uses to preach in regularly is called the Cathedral.”-John H. Cowles, Sovereign Grand Commander, Transactions of the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction (page 99) of 1923.


Some Masonic students have thought, although the opposition holds that there does not seem to be any specific documentary evidence to warrant such belief, that in the Middle Ages there was a separate class of Freemasons known as Cathedral, or Church, Builders who worked on ecclesiastical structures only and were distinct from the town guilds or companies.

These students are of the opinion that the so-called Old Charges were originally intended as rules for use among this church building class of Freemasons.

Leader Scott (the pen name of the author, Mrs. Baxter of Florence, Italy) has in her book, Cathedral Builders, unearthed from Muratori’s collection of ancient manuscripts an edict signed by King Rotharis of November 22, 643, containing the following clauses:

If the Comacine Master with his colleagues shall have contracted to restore or build the house of any person whatsoever, the contact far payment being made, and it chances that some one shall die by the fall of the said house, or any material or stones from it, the owner of the said house shall not be cited by the Magister Comacinus or his brethren to compensate them for homicide or injury ; because having for their own gain contracted for the payment of the building, they must sustain the risks and injuries thereof. If any person has engaged or hired one or more of the Comacine Masters to design a work (conduxerit ad operam dictandam), or to daily assist his workmen in building a palace or a house, and it should happen that by reason of the house some Comacine should be killed, the owner of the house is not considered responsible; but if a pole or a stone shall kill or injure any extraneous person, the Master builder shall not bear the blame, but the person who hired him shall make compensation.

Mrs. Baxter says: “These laws prove that in the seventh century the Magistri Comacini were a compact and powerful guild, capable of asserting their rights, and that the guild was properly organized, having degrees of different ranks; that the higher orders were entitled Magistri, and could ‘design’ or ‘undertake’ a work; i.e., act as architects; and that the colleagues worked under, or with them.

In fact, a powerful organization altogether; so powerful and so solid, that it speaks of a very ancient foundation” (see Cathedral Builders, the Story of a Great Masonic Guild, 1899, London, pages 5-7, 423-6; also the Comacines, their Predecessors and their Successors, Brother W. Ravenscroft, 1910, London, pages 54-64, and the astride on Comacine Masters in this work).


It was formerly the custom to bestow upon an Entered Apprentice, on his initiation, a new name, which was Caution.

The custom is now very generally discontinued, although the principle which it inculcated should never be forgotten. Similar instruction is still given in the Bristol Working but without the foregoing name.

The Old Charges of 1723 impress upon a Freemason the necessity, when in the presence of strangers not Freemasons, to be “cautious in your words and carriage, that the most penetrating stranger shall not be able to discover or find out what is not proper to be intimated”; as these Charges were particularly directed to Apprentices, who then constituted the great body of the Fraternity, it is possible that the “new name” gave rise to the Charge, or, more likely, that the Charge gave rise to the “new name.”


In the Pagan mysteries of antiquity the initiations were often performed in caverns, of which a few, like the cave of Elephanta in India, still remain to indicate by their form and extent the character of the rites that were then performed.

The Cavern of Elephanta, which was the most gorgeous temple in the world, is one hundred and thirty feet square, and eighteen feet high. It is supported by four massive pillars, and its walls are covered with statues and carved symbolic decorations.

The sacellum, or sacred place, which contained the phallic symbol, was in the western extremity, and accessible only to the initiated.

The caves of Salsette greatly exceeded in magnitude that of Elephanta, being three hundred in number, all adorned with symbolic figures, among which the phallic emblems were predominant, which were placed in the most secret recesses, accessible only by private entrances.

In every cave was a basin to contain the consecrated water of ablution, on the surface of which floated the sacred lotus flower.

All these caves were places of initiation into the Hindu mysteries, and every arrangement was made for the performance of the most impressive ceremonies.

Faber (Dissertatian an the Mysteries af the Cabiri, ii, 257) says that “wherever the Cabiric Mysteries were practiced, they were always in some manner or other connected with caverns,” and he mentions, among other instances, the cave of Zirinthus, within whose dark recesses the most mysterious Rites of the Samothracian Cabiri were performed.

Maurice (Indian Antiquities, iii, 536), speaking of the subterranean passages of the Temple of Isis, in the island of Phile in the river Nile, says “it was in these gloomy caverns that the grand and mystic arcana of the goddess were unfolded to the adoring aspirant, while the solemn hymns of initiation resounded through the long extent of these stony recesses.”

Many of the ancient orates, as, for instance, that of Trophonius in Boeotia, were delivered in caves.

Hence, the cave – subterranean, dark, and silent – was mingled in the ancient mind with the idea of mystery.

In the ceremonies of Freemasonry, we find the cavern or vault in what is called the Cryptic Freemasonry of the American Rite, and also in the advanced Degrees of the French and Scottish Rites, in which it is a symbol of the darkness of ignorance and crime impenetrable to the light of truth.

In reference to the practical purposes of the cavern, as recorded in the legend of these Degrees, it may be mentioned that caves, which abounded in Palestine in consequence of the geological structure of the country, are spoken of by Josephus as places of refuge for banditti; and Phillott says, in Smith’s Bible Dictionary, that it was the caves which lie beneath and around so many of the Jewish cities that formed the last hiding-places of the Jewish leaders in the war with the Romans.


A country in South America. Lodge No. 204, L’Anglaise, at Bordeaux, France, warranted a Lodge at Cayenne in 1755 and gave it its own name. Other Lodges were organized by French authority, both of the Grand Lodge and the Grand Orient, at different times throughout the years.


In Scriptural symbology, the cedar-tree, says Wemyss (Symbolic Language of Scripture), was the symbol of eternity, because its substance never decays nor rots.

Hence, the Ark of the Covenant was made of cedar; and those are said to utter things worthy of cedar who write that which no time ought to obliterate.

The Cedars af Lebanan are frequently referred to in the legends of Freemasonry, especially in the advanced Degrees; not, however, on account of any symbolical signification, but rather because of the use made of them by Solomon and Zerubbabel in the construction of their respective Temples.

Phillott (Smith’s Bible Dictionary) thus describes the grove so Celebrated in Scriptural and Masonic history:

“The grove of trees known as the Cedars of Lebanon consists of about four hundred trees, standing quite alone in a depression of the mountain with no trees near, about six thousand four hundred feet above the sea, and three thousand below the summit.

About eleven or twelve are very large and old, twenty-five large, fifty of middle size, and more than three hundred younger and smaller ones.

The older trees have each several trunks and spread themselves widely round, but most of the others are of cone-like form, and do not send out wide lateral branches.

In 1550 there were twenty-eight old trees, in 1739, Pococke counted fifteen, but the number of trunks makes the operation of counting uncertain.

They are regarded with much reverence by the native inhabitants as living records of Solomon’s power, and the Maronite patriarch was formerly accustomed to celebrate there the festival of the Transfiguration at an altar of rough stones.”


An island in the East Indies

The Grand Lodge of Holland chartered a Lodge at Macassar in 1883 called Arbeid Adelt (Ennobled Labor).


The Third Degree of Fessler’s Rite (see Fessler, Rite of)


See Alphabet, Angels


See Druidical Mysteries


The early inhabitants of Italy, Gaul, Spain, and Britain.

They are supposed to have left Asia during one of the Aryan emigrations, and, having traveled in a westerly direction, to have spread over these countries of Europe. The Celtic Mysteries or the Sacred Rites which they instituted are known as Druidical Mysteries, which see.


The cement which in Operative Freemasonry is used to unite the various parts of a building into one strong and durable mass, is borrowed by Speculative Freemasonry as a symbol to denote that brotherly love which binds the Freemasons of all countries in one common brotherhood. As this brotherhood is recognized as being perfected among Master Masons only, the symbol is very appropriately referred to the Third Degree.


The desire to select some suitable spot wherein to deposit the remains of our departed kindred and friends seems almost innate in the human breast.

The stranger’s field was bought with the accursed bribe of betrayal and treason, and there is an abhorrence to depositing our loved ones in places whose archetype was so desecrated by its purchase-money.

The churchyard, to the man of sentiment, is as sacred as the church itself.

The cemetery bears a hallowed character, and we adorn its graves with vernal flowers or with evergreens to show that the dead, though away from our presence visibly, still live and bloom in our memories.

The oldest of all the histories that time has saved to us contains an affecting story of this reverence of the living for the dead, when it tells us how Abraham, when Sarah, his beloved wife, had died in a strange land, reluctant to bury her among strangers, purchased from the sons of Heth the cave of Machpelah for a burial-place for his people.

It is not, then, surprising that Freemasons, actuated by this spirit, should have been desirous to consecrate certain spots as resting-places for themselves and for the strange Brethren who should die among them

A writer in the London Freemason’s Magazine for 1858 complained that there was not then in England a Masonic cemetery, nor portion of an established cemetery especially dedicated to the interment of the Brethren of the Craft. This neglect cannot be charged against the Freemasons of America, for there is scarcely a city or town of considerable size in which the Freemasons have not purchased and appropriated a suitable spot as a cemetery to be exclusively devoted to the use of the Fraternity.

These cemeteries are often, and should always be, dedicated with impressive ceremonies; and it was long to be regretted that our rituals provided no sanctioned form of service for these occasions.


A small vessel of metal fitted to receive burning coals from the altar, and on which the incense for burning was sprinkled by the priest in the Temple. Among the furniture of a Royal Arch Chapter is to be found the censer, which is placed upon the altar of incense within the sanctuary, as a symbol of the pure thoughts and grateful feelings which, in so holy a place, should be offered up as a fitting sacrifice to the great I AM.

In a similar symbolic sense, the censer under the name of the pot of incense, is found among the emblems of the Third Degree (see Pot of Incense).

The censer also constitutes a part of the Lodge furniture in many of the advanced Degrees.


Gädicke says he is not an officer, but is now and then introduced into some of the Lodges of Germany.

He is commonly found where the Lodge has its own private house, in which, on certain days, mixed assemblies are held of Freemasons and their families and friends. Of those assemblies the Censor has the superintendence.


In Masonic Law, the mildest form of punishment that can be inflicted, and may be defined to be a formal expression of disapprobation, without other result than the effect produced upon the feelings of him who is censured. It is adopted by a resolution of the Lodge on a motion made at a regular communication; it requires only a bare majority of votes, for its passage does not affect the Masonic standing of the person censured, and may be revoked at any subsequent regular communication.


A mystical society of the eighteenth century which admitted females.

It was organized at Bordeaux in 1735 (see Thory, Acta Latamorum 1, 298).


In England when a Lodge celebrates the hundredth year of its anniversary it is permitted to choose a special jewel for the occasion.

In 1867 the particular design to be used was authorized and illustrated for the first time in 1871 when the Book of Constitutions was issued.

Before that time each Lodge was permitted to select its own design, securing the approval of the Grand Master before using the jewel.

As a result of this method there are forty-two of the older Lodges now in possession of Special Centenary Jewels of different designs and which may, be worn by all subscribing members of the particular Lodge.

Many Centenary Warrants were issued before 1871 but it is during that year that the first special provision was made for them. In order to secure one of the Warrants a Lodge must prove uninterrupted existence for one hundred years.

The English Royal Arch Chapters come under this same ruling.


That which happens every hundred years.

Masonic Bodies that have lasted for that period very generally celebrate the occasion by a commemorative festival.

On the 4th of November, 1852, almost all of the Lodges of the United States celebrated the centennial anniversary of the initiation of George Washington as a Freemason.


In the English instructions, a Master Mason’s Lodge is said to be opened on the center, because the Brethren present, being all Master Masons, are equally near and equally distant from that imaginary central point which among Freemasons constitutes perfection.

Neither of the preliminary Degrees can assert the same conditions, because the Lodge of an Entered Apprentice may contain all the three classes, and that of a Fellow Craft may include some Master Masons; and therefore the doctrine of perfect equality is not carried out in either. An attempt was made, but without success, in the Trestle Board, published under the sanction of the Baltimore Masonic Convention, to introduce the custom into the American Lodges.


Meaning Centralists. Lenning says such a society existed in Europe between 1770 and 1780, pursuing alchemical, political and religious studies and operating under Masonic forms.


A society which existed in Europe from 1770 to 1780. It made use of Masonic forms at its meetings simply to conceal its secrets.

Lening calls it an alchemical association, but says that it had religious and political tendencies.
Glädicke thinks that its object was to propagate Jesuitism.


See Point within a Circle


A word which in the Syriac signifies a rock or stone, and is the name which was bestowed by Christ upon Simon, when he said to him, “Thou art a rock,” which the Greeks rendered by nirpo, and the Latins by Petrus, both words meaning a rock.

It is used in the Degree of Royal Master, and there alludes to the Stone of Foundation, which see.


The outer garments which cover and adorn Freemasonry as clothing does the human body. Although ceremonies give neither live nor truth to doctrines or principles, yet they have an admirable influence, since by their use certain things are made to acquire a sacred character which they would not otherwise have had; and hence, Lord Coke has most wisely said that “prudent antiquity did, for more solemnity and better memory and observation of that which is to be done, express substances under ceremonies. ”


See Master of Ceremonies


Among the Romans, the goddess of agriculture; but among the more poetic Greeks she was worshiped under the name of Demeter, as the symbol of the prolific earth.

To her is attributed the institution of the Eleusinian Mysteries in Greece, the most popular of all the ancient initiations.

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