Enciclopédia Mackey – GREUZE ~ GYPSIES




Born August 21, 1725; died at Paris, March 4, 1805. A celebrated French painter and engraver, his work highly praised by Dixmerie and Diderot of his own generation and still maintains its early reputation. His name apse pears on the list for 1779 of the Lodge of the Nine Sisters at Paris (see Une Loge Maçonnique, d’Avant 1789, Louis Amiable, 1897, page 329).


Born March 10, 1701/2, Boston, Massachusetts, graduated from Harvard, 1725. taught school, on June 28, 1728, given Degree of Master of Arts by Harvard, in 1731 founded the Weekly Rehearsal, early Boston newspaper. Past Grand Master Isaiah Thomas (History of Printing, volume I, page 3 7, 1810 edition) says the Weekly Rehearsal “was carried on at the expense of some gentlemen who formed themselves into a political or literary club and wrote for it. At the head of this club was the late celebrated Jeremy Gridley who was the real editor of the paper.” This, the first newspaper or magazine published in America having substantial claim to literary merit, secured this reputation largely from Brother Gridley’s masterly contributions.

Practically a complete volume of this paper is on file with the American Antiquarian Society at Worcester, Massachusetts. Gridley severed his connection with the Meekly Rehearsal April, 1733, and until June 10, 1742, practiced law and on this date was chosen Attorney General by both Houses of Assembly. April 13, 1748 Gridley was proposed to the First Lodge by Past Grand Master Henry Price, elected April 27, and made May 11. December 7, 1750, he was Raised in the Masters Lodge. At that time few progressed beyond the grade of Entered Apprentice. Gridley became a member of the First Lodge January 24, 1753.

He was elected Junior Warden, Masters Lodge, December 1, 1752, and Senior Warden July 6, 1753. here tired from office in the Masters Lodge December 7, 1753, and received unanimous election as Master of the First Lodge, December 6, 1753. On October 1, 1755, Jeremy Gridley was appointed Grand Master of Masons in North America. The Boston Marine Society, formerly the Fellowship Club, on February 26, 1754, in acknowledgment of his services, voted him the “freedom of the society for life.” Prior to May 19, 1755, Brother Gridley moved to Brookline and on May 25, 1767, he was appointed Kinffl’s Attorney General. From 1767 his health failed and the last time he presided over Grand Lodge was January 23, 1767. His death occulted September 10, 1767, when he was Grand Master of Masons, Attorney General for the Province of Massachusetts Bay, a member of the Great and General Court of the Province and a Justice, Colonel of the First Regiment of Militia, President of the Marine Society, Selectman and Assessor of Brookline. The following was written in memory of Brother Gridley by James Otis, an eminent lawyer, raised in the Masters Lodge OD January 4, 1754:

Of Parts and Learning, Wit and Worth possess’d
Gridley shone forth conspicuous o’er the rest:
In native Powers robust, and smit with Fame.
The Genius brighten d and the Spark took Flame
Nature and Science wove the laurel Crown,
Ambitious, each alike, conferr’d Renown.
High in the Dignity and Strength of Thought,
The Maze of Knowledge sedulous he sought,
With Mind Superior Studied and retain’d.
And Life and Property by Law Sustain’d.
Generous and free. his lib’ral Hand he spread
Th’ Oppress’d relieved, and for the Seedy Plead
Awake to Friendship, with the ties of Mood
His Heart expanded and his Soul o’erflow’d.
Social in Converse. in the Senate brave.
Gay e en in Dignity, with Wisdom grave;
Long to his country and to Courts endear’d
The Judges honor’d and the Bar rever’d.
Rest! Peaceful Shade! innoxious as they Walk
May slander babble and may censure talk,
Ne’er on thy Mem’ry east a Blot
But human Frailties in thy Worth forgot

(See Beginnings of Freemasonry in America, 1924, pages 119, 326 47, also Grand Master’s address, both by Brother Melvin M. Johnson, Proceedings, Massachusetts, 1916, pages 309-530.)


In early Masonic works this is called the gripe. German Freemasons call it der Griff, and the French ones, I’Attouchement.


In the Leland Manuscripts a corruption of Crotona, where Pythagoras established his school of philosophy.


The complete name of this organization is Mystic Order Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm. Al Mokanna, the Veiled Prophet, bears also the name of Hakem ben Haschem, and according to Persian records lived sometime between the seventh and eighth centuries. Some authorities give the name of the prophet, Al Mokanna, the Veiled One, as Al Hakim ibn Otto, and the date of his activity as about the year 760. His prophecies were uttered from behind a veil, hence the term applied to him. Thomas Moore wrote a poem interesting on account of the details regarding Al Mokanna, as well for the mention of places and persons useful in the naming of the Grottoes. However, in the case of the Grotto, the poem by Moore was not the source of inspiration which produced the Ritual.

Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm was the name finally chosen because of the enchanting goodfellowship the members had found within the mystical realm of the Order. As expressed by Commodore W. C. Eaton, the Order was planned to be the most secluded of Secret Orders; it was to be veiled, and the Mokanna of the poem was adopted as the mask or veil of secrecy which the Order was supposed to wear before the world. Thus the Al Mokanna of the poem is not indicative of the ideals taught by the Order; he is only the veil, and the use of Persian names by Grottoes simply fringes the veil with the peculiar charm of mysticism and imagery associated with all that comes from the mysterious East. The real Mokanna of the Prophets dwells in the hearts of the faithful and is so opposite in character to the false Mokanna of the poem that he is known only to those who have looked behind the veil and beheld the Enchanted Realm.

Dr. Oren Root of Hamilton College gave at an early meeting of the Supreme Council a response to a toast discussing the Why of the organization. From this we take the following: Freemasonry deals with manhood, square and upright; it is practical and earnest. Speculative minds have built upon the practical tenets of Freemasonry extended systems having abstruse and complicated meanings. Others, fully realizing that “Life is real, life is earnests have felt that the real would be no less real, the earnestness no less strong, if there came the warmth of humor, the gleam of wit, and the glow of sympathy. We need sunshine in life as well as in the air. Master Masons, good and true, of Hamilton Lodge, No. 120, averse to trespassing upon the dignified earnestness of the Lodge, yet feeling the need and value of closer, warmer communion, were wont, after the Lodge closed, to tarry for social intercourse. In the flowing humor and the sparkling wit, in the joke and song, the heart warmth oft and long remembered of these tarryings, they entered a Realm Enchanted, and by and by they became its Prophets. To perpetuate what gave them pleasure, and as true warm souls are generous to widen the scope of it, they organized. As they were Freemasons.

they limited its boundary to the Masonic Fraternity though it makes no claim to be Freemasonry. So the Order came: Mystic in its subtle lessons as in its form; Veiled because no human heart stands all revealed: of an Enchanted Realm, because who does not know how duties wear and sorrows burden in any un-enchanted realm? If Rites are framed to teach higher speculative tenets and we honor them, so too may Rites well be framed to gather and scatter the warm-heart sunshine of life. The Grand Alchemist has tested it; it is elixir.

The origin and development of the Order is explained at length in Doctor Mackey’s revised History of Freemasonry (pages 198S91). The Grotto was born of an effort for stronger sociability among the Brethren of Hamilton Lodge No. 120, Free and Accepted Masons, Hamilton, New York. The very informality did not tend to the keeping of complete records but any uncertainty later about the facts was met by the circumstance that several of the original members long continued their able activities in the Grotto, Brother Sidney D. Smith becoming the Grand Secretary. Brother LeRoy Fairchild and other Brethren of Hamilton Lodge had often met for fun and frolic.

Their lively social relations, some times mischievous but never mean, resulted during the summer of 1889 in an initiation promising rich enjoyment. This project received a warm welcome and a more permanent organization seemed necessary. September 10, 1889, there was an organization meeting held in the Masonic Hall at Hamilton of the following Brethren: LeRoy Fairchild, George Beal, Sidney D. Smith, Thos. H. Beal, Wm. M. West, J. W. Clark, U. C. Van Vleck, B. J. Stimson, Adon N. Smith, H. S. Gardiner, C. J. Griswold. Robert Patterson, A. M. Russell, John A. Holmgren, John F. Howe, G. G. Waldron, and Edwin L. Peet. At this first meeting the following officers were elected: LeRoy Fairchild, K. D.; B. J. Stimson, C. J.; George Beal, C.; J. W. Clark, C.; Thos. H. Beal, W. D. R.; and Sidney D. Smith, Secretary.

This organization developed into the Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm, but there was at the start nothing more intended than a local affair. Of this we are assured by the name. The assembled Brethren chose as a title the Fairchild Deviltry Committee, and the presiding officer was called the King Devil . Membership was decided at this first meeting to be confined exclusively to Master Masons in good standing. Brothers R. R. Riddell and H. P. Tompkins were proposed as the first candidates and a date was set for their initiation. The ceremony proved a great success. A Ritual had been written by Brothers George Beal and Adon N. Smith. This work evoked warm praise and a Ritual Committee comprising Brothers R. R. Riddell, George Beal, A. N. Smith, LeRoy Fairchild, T. H. Beal, and W. M. West, was appointed to further perfect the ceremonial.

When contributing his recollections freely for this account of the Grotto, Grand Secretary Smith accorded to Prophets R. R. Riddell and George Beal the credit for successfully working out the revision. Brother Riddell brought ideal qualifications to the task, brilliantly embellishing the revised work with gems fanciful and sparkling, and inspiring much of the showy dash, urge and glitter. His suggestion was that the characters be given mythological names. This idea worked out splendidly though there was scarcely anything of classical mythology in the drama. Prophet George Beal was the author of the original Ritual and received valuable assistance from Brother Riddell and others in working out the first revision but all the later work was done by him alone. The pioneer labor of Brother Beal survived. Brother Smith so s that none of the changes since made in the Ritual disturbed the main lines laid down by Brother Beal.

The services of Prophet Beal were officially recognized by the Supreme Council at the Annual Session held in June, 1917, at Washington, District of Columbia, when a suitable resolution was unanimously adopted and a Committee comprising Past Grand Monarchs Charles E. Lansing, Hiram D. Rogers and J. F. McGregory was appointed to have it engrossed and presented. The following quotation is from this testimonial:

Resolved, that the Supreme Council in conjunction with all Veiled Prophets of the Realm do assure our worthy and esteemed Prophet George Beal of our appreciation of his work as Committee on Ritual, embracing as it does all the essential and beautiful Seets of the Order, the promulgation of which has been a potent factor and conducive to the advancement and upbuilding of the Order.

Brother Smith contradicts the statement that the Grotto was founded on Chapter Twenty-four of the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, as the original Ritual will show. A copy of this as well as every revised edition is preserved in the safe of the Grand Secretary and nearly all are in the handwriting of Prophet George Beal who, Brother Smith tells us, never saw the Egyptian Book of the Dead. Minor modifications became advisable and another Committee was appointed. This comprised Brothers LeRoy Fairchild, George Beal, W. C. Eaton, and J. F. McGregory. They eliminated some features and some additions were made by this Committee, and these proved most acceptable. These amendments left the Ritual in a form which at once became practically permanent.

Temporary and local as the organization may have appeared at the beginning the success attained such proportions that the growing institution needed a suitable governing and organizing body. May 28, 1890, the Brethren of the F. D. C. met and studied the extension of the Order. They unanimously resolved to establish a Supreme Council with power to control affairs. Measures to that end were adopted. Thereby the Supreme Council of the Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm was duly set in operation on Friday, June 13, 1890, to carry systematically onward to Master Masons everywhere the fun and frolic of the Grotto. When the Supreme Council was organized there were fourteen members present, Brother LeRoy Fairchild presiding, with Brother Sidney D. Smith acting as Secretary. The Constitution and Statutes of the Supreme Council of the Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm were read and approved. Officers were elected as follows:

  • Thomas L. James, Grand Monareh, New York City.
  • LeRoy Fairchild, Deputy Grand Monarch, Hamilton, New York.
  • George H. Raymond, Grand Chief Justice, New York City.
  • J. C. Terry, Grand Master Ceremonies, St. Paul, Minnesota.
  • William M. West, Grand Treasurer, Hamilton, New York.
  • Sidney D. Smith, Grand Seeretary, Hamilton New York
  • Oren Root, Grand Keeper of Archived Clinton, New York.
  • James Byron Murray, Grand Orator, Auburn New York
  • V. G. Prophet, Hnmilton, New York.
  • U. C. Van Vleek, Trustee, Hamilton, New York.
  • Adon N. Smith, Trustee, Hamilton, New York
  • D. B. West, Trustee, Hamilton, New York.

The remaining offices were filled by the appointment of the following Brothers:

  • Thomas II. Beal, Grand Captain of Guard, Hamilton New York.
  • J. F. Gregory, Grand Alchemist, Hamilton, New York.
  • Samuel J. Todd, Standard Bearer, New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • John Cunningham, Grand Marshal, Utiea. New York.
  • J. W. Clark. Grand Steward, Hamilton, New York
  • B. J. Stimson, Deputy Grand Chief Justice, Hamilton, New York.
  • George Beal, Deputy Grand Master of Ceremonies, Hamilton, New York.

These Brethren were installed by Grand Chief Justice George H. Raymond and the elected Grand Officers were empowered to complete the organization. A Charter was granted to Druid Grotto No. 1 at Hamilton, New York, but this name was afterwards changed to Mokanna Grotto at a meeting of the Supreme Council held on July 5, 1890. An Obligation presented by Brother W. C. Eaton was formally adopted, and on his motion also, the Deputy Grand Monarch, the Deputy Grand Chief Justice and the Deputy Grand Master of Ceremonies were appointed a Committee to act upon reports submitted by various Committees of the Supreme Council. After a banquet in the evening, the Supreme Council adjourned to the following afternoon of June 14, 1890, at 3 P.M., when Deputy Grand Monarch LeRoy Fairchild installed Brother Thomas L. James as Grand Monarch of the Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm. At this session the seal and badge of the Order were adopted. The turhans of the Veiled Prophets were by resolution at a later session of 1890 permitted to be of any color a Grotto might select but to be used with a silver veil. All turbans of the same Grotto were to be alike as to color, but no purple to be worn except by members of the Supreme Council.

The Supreme Council meeting at the Masonic Hall, Hamilton, June 11 l891, was memorable because a Dispensation for the second Grotto was granted. This Body received a Charter from the Supreme Council June 9, l892, as Khorassan Grotto No. 2, of Ilion, New York, and at the same session a Charter was issued to Zeba Grotto, No. 4, at Rome in that State. Dispensations had previously been given on August 26, 1891, to Lalla Rookh Grotto, No. 3, of Rochester, New York, and to Zeba Grotto Lalla Rookh receiving a Charter on June 27, 1893 at the first New York City meeting of the Supreme Council when a Charter was also issued to Mirzola Grotto, No. 5. at Amsterdam, New York. Hiawatha Grotto, No. 8, at Anoka, Minnesota; Azim Grotto, No. 7, of Nest York City, and Shiras Grotto, No. 8. at Antwerp, New York, were granted Dispensations at this session. Charters were given to these three Bodies together with one to Zelica Grotto, No. 9, at Kinderhook, New York, on June 14, 1894, at the annual meeting held in the Scottish Rite Hall, New York City.

Brother Adon Smith Was elected Grand Monarch at the session of 1894 succeeding Brother James who had served in 1890, 1891, 1892 and 1893. Grand Monarch Smith was reselected at the Supreme Council annual sessions from June 14, 1894, to October 31, 1899. He was also Monarch of Azim Grotto, No. z. A revision of the Constitution and Statutes, and a Password were adopted at the New York City session of the Supreme Council on June 6, 1895. The genial founder and constant inspiration of the Grotto was Brother LeRoy Fairchild who died at his home in Hamilton, New York, January 23, 1897, aged but 51 years. He was Deputy Grand Monarch from the institution of the Supreme Council up to his death. Brother George F. Loder of Rochester, New York;, was Grand Monarch in 1901 and 1902. He presided at the Buffalo session on October 19, 1900, of the Supreme Council, Grand Monarch Adon Smith dying in his 65th year on June 13, 1900, the tenth anniversary of the organization of the Supreme Council. Grand Secretary Sidney D. Smith resigned his office at the annual meeting in June, 1924, and was succeeded in that position by Brother George Edward Hatch of Rochester, New York, a Past Grand Monarch of 1910. In the Proceedings, Thirteenth Annual Convention, 1902, there is a tribute on pages 12S7 to Brother Smith by his old associate, Prophet George Beal, from which the following extract is taken:

“Grand Monarch Balston in writing on this matter said, ‘Surely, no one is more entitled to recognition than our Grand Secretary who by his zealous work in the cause has done so much toward the success of the Order.’ To be thus mentioned by the Grand Monarch is indeed a distinguished honor, but it is no more than is justly due Sidney D. Smith for the eminent ability zeal and fidelity with which he has ever discharged his duties as Grand Secretary.” Of this we also bear tribute for he generously co-operated in making this account of the Grotto accurate and complete. Brother Smith died on November 12. 1924.


This is said to have been a Mosaic pavement, consisting of black and white stones laid lozengewise, and surrounded by a tesselated border. The tradition of the Order is that Entered Apprentices Lodges were held on the ground floor of King, Solomon’s Temple; and hence a Mosaic pavement, or a carpet representing one, is a very common decoration of Masonic Lodges (see Mosaic Pavement and Grand Offerings).


Mount Moriah, on which the temple of Solomon was built, is symbolically called the ground floor of the Lodge, and hence it is said that “the Lodge rests on holy ground.” This ground floor Of the Lodge is remarkable for three great events recorded in Scripture, which are called the three grand of erings of Freemasonry It was here that Abraham prepared, as a token of his faith, to offer up his beloved son Isaac this was the first rand offering; it was here that David, when his people were afflicted with pestilence, built an altar, and offered thereon peace-offerings and burnt offerings to appease the wrath of God this was the second grand offering; and lastly, it was here that when the Temple was completed, King Solomon dedicated that magnificent structure to the service of Jehovah, with the offering of pious prayers and many costly presents and this was the third grand offering. This sacred spot was once the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite, and from him David purchased it for fifty shekels of silver. The Cabalists delight to invest it with still more solemn associations, and declare that it was the spot on which Adam was created and Abel slain (see Holy Ground).


Mentioned in the legend of the Strict Observance, and was the reputed Grand Master of the Templars from 1330 to 1339, and the twenty-second Grand Master.


See Due Guard


See Knight of the Christian Maria


Officers used in working the ceremonies of the Red Cross and Templar Degrees. They do not constitute regular officers of a Council or Commandery, but are appointed for a particular purpose.


A republic of Central America. The Grand Orient of Colombia organized in 1881 Constance Lodge at Cartagena. This divided into three others affiliated with the Grand Orient of Central America. On October 20, 1903, the Grand Orient of Guatemala was opened at Guatemala City.


A distinguished French Freemason, born at Nancy on February 26, 1796. He was the author of a poem entitled La Maçonnerie, in three cantos, enriched with historical, etymological, and critical notes, published in 1820. For this work he received from the Lodge Freres Artistes, Brother Artists, of which he was the Orator, a gold medal. He was the author of several other works, both Masonic and secular.


Wrote a history of the crusades having many references to the Knights Templar. An edition of this work was published at London in 1640.


An impostor in Freemasonry, who, in 177O, appeared in Germany, and, being a member. of the Order of Strict Observance, claimed that he had been delegated by the Unknown Superiors of the Holy See, or principal office, at Cyprus to establish a new Order of Knights Templars. Calling himself Duz, or the Ruler, and High Priest, he convoked a Masonic Congress at Wiesbaden, which, notwithstanding the warning of Doctor Bode, was attended by many influential members of the Fraternity. His pretensions were so absurd, that at length his imposture was detected, and he escaped secretly out of Wiesbaden. In 1786, Gugumos confessed the imposition, and, it is said asserted that he had been employed as a tool by the Jesuits to perform this part, that Freemasonry might be injured.


See British Guiana, Cayenne, and Surinam


The names given to the Assassins of the Third Degree by some of the inventors of the advanced Degrees, are of so singular a form as to have almost irresistibly led to the conclusion that these names were bestowed by the adherents of the house of Stuart upon some of their enemies as marks of infamy. Such, for instance, is Romsel, the name of one of the Assassins in certain Scottish Degrees, which is probably a corruption of Cromwell. Jubelum Guibbs, another name of one of these traitors, has much puzzled the Masonic etymologists. Brother Mackey believed that he had found its origin in the name of the Rev. Adam Gib, who was an antiburgher clergyman of Edinburgh.

When that city was taken possession of by the young Pretender, Charles Edward in 1745, the clergy generally fled. But Gib removed only three miles from the city, where, collecting his loyal congregation, he hurled anathema’s for five successive Sundays against the Pretender, and boldly prayed for the downfall of the rebellion. He subsequently joined the loyal army, and at Falkirk took a rebel prisoner. So active was Gib in his opposition to the cause of the house of Stuart, and so obnoxious had he become, that several attempts were made by the rebels to take his life. On Charles Edward’s return to France, he erected in 1747 his Primordial Chapter at Arras; and in the composition of the advanced Degrees there practiced, it is very probable that he bestowed the name of his old enemy Gib on the most atrocious of the Assassins who figure in the legend of Third Degree. The letter u was doubtless inserted to prevent the French, in pronouncing the name, from falling into the soft sound of the G and called the word Jib. The additional b and s were the natural and customary results of a French attempt to spell a foreign proper name (see Arras, Primoraial Chapter of ).

An old handbook in French, Thuileur des Trentetrois Degrees use l’Ecossisme, published in l815 at Paris, mentions on page 79 that some had derived the word Jabulum from Zabulon, a Hebrew word meaning habitation.


A famous literary Freemason; born at Chartrettes, near Melun, France, May 5, 1731; died there on February 23, 1811. He wrote a number of books including some comic operas and sprightly verse. His name is on both lists of the Lodge of the Nine Sisters for 1806, as having taken part in the Lodge after its revival but he is also on the roster for 1779 (see Une Loge Maconnique, Louis Amiable, 1897, pages 298 and 313).


See Masonic Grand Secretaries Guild


A distinguished French writer, who published several works on Freemasonry, the most valuable and best known of which is his Recueil Précieus de la Maçonnerie Adonhiraanite, meaning Choice Selections of Adonhiramite Masonry, first issued at Paris in 1782. This work, of which several editions were published, contains the catechisms of the first four Degrees of Adonhiramite Freemasonry, and an account of several other Degrees, and is enriched with many learned notes. Ragon, who speaks highly of the work, erroneously attributes its authorship to the celebrated Baron de Tschaldy.


Famous French physician and zealous Freemason. Born at Saintes, May 28, 1738; died at Paris, March 26, 1814. Often credited with inventing the guillotine, a machine for beheading those condemned to death in France, but this is untrue; neither did he die by this means, as has been asserted. As Deputy to the Assembly, he urged, on December 1, 1789, that capital punishment should be inflicted as speedily and painlessly as possible, and argued for a machine. Although such contrivances were not new, and in fact the one adopted at the time was perfected by Antoine Louis, secretary of the Academy of Surgeons, and a mechanic, Schmidt, the machine unjustly bears the name of him who pleaded for its use on humane grounds.

One of the founders of the Grand Orient of France, Doctor Guillotin was first the Orator of the Chamber of the Provinces, becoming President, October 27, 1775, and was Worshipful Master of Concorde Fraternelle Lodge at Paris, his name being on the list of Lodges for 1776 with the address “at Schools of Medicine,” and among the officers of the Grand Orient, that year, he is qualified as professor of the medical faculty in the University of Paris. He was in 1778 the founder of the society which became the Academy of Medicine, and in 1784 he was with Benjamin Franklin, American statesman, and Jean Sylvain Bailly, French astronomer, all three members of the Lodge of the Nine Sisters, appointed the Royal Commission to report on the animal magnetism claims of Mesmer (see Une Loge Maçonnique d’Avant 1789, Louis Amiable, 1897, page 282).


See French Guinea


King of Sweden. He was initiated into Freemasonry, at Stockholm, on Starch 10, 1793. Ten years after, on March 9, 1803, Gustavus issued an Ordinance by which he required all the secret societies in his dominions to make known to the Stadtholders of the cities where they resided, and in the provinces to his Governors, not only the formula of the oath which they administered to their members but the duties which they prescribed, and the object of their association; and also to submit at any time to a personal inspection by the officers of government. But at the end of the Ordinance the lsing says: “The Freemasons, who are under our immediate protection, are alone excepted from this inspection, and from this Ordinance in general.”


From the Latin guttur, meaning the throat. The throat is that avenue of the body which is most employed in the sins of intemperance, and hence it suggests to the Freemason certain symbolic instructions in relation to the virtue of temperance (see Points of Entrance, Perfect).


The Eighth Degree of the Cabalistic Rite.


Signifying naked sages. A name given by the Greeks to those ancient Hindu philosophers who lived solitarily in the woods, wore little or no clothing, and addicted themselves to mystical contemplation and. the practice of the most rigorous asceticism. Strabo divides them into Brahmans ant Samans, the former of whom adhered to the strictest principles of caste, while the latter admitted any one into their number regarding whose character and kindred they were satisfied. They believed in the immortality of the soul and its migration into other bodies. They practiced celibacy, abstained from wine, and lived on fruits. They held riches in contempt, and abstained from sensual indulgences.


Cornelius Van Paun, more generally known as De Paun, in his Philosophical Researches on the Egyptians and Chinese, published at Paris, 1774, advances the theory that Freemasonry originated with the Gypsies. He says: ‘ Every person who was not guilty of some crime could obtain admission to the lesser mysteries. Those vagabonds called Egyptian priests in Greece and Italy required considerable sums for initiation; and their successors, the Gypsies, practice similar mummeries to obtain money.

And thus was Freemasonry introduced into Europe. “But De Paun is remarkable for the paradoxical character of his opinions. James Simpson, who has written a rather exhaustive History of the Gypsies, published in 1866, points out (page 387),” a considerable resemblance between Gypsyism, in its harmless aspect, and Freemasonry with this difference, that the former is a general, while the latter is a special, society; that is to say, the Gypsies have the language, or some of the words and the signs peculiar to the whole race, which each individual or class will use for different purposes. The race does not necessarily, and does not in fact, have intercourse with every other member of it. In that respect they resemble any ordinary community of men.”
And he adds: “There are many Gypsies Freemasonry; indeed, they are the very people to push their way into a Freemasons Lodge; for they have secrets of their own, and are naturally anxious to pry into those of others, by which they may be benefited. I was told of a Gypsy who died, lately, the Master of a Freemasons’ Lodge. A friend, a Freemason, told me the other day of his having entered a house in Yetholm where were five Gypsies, all of whom responded to his Masonic signs.” But it must be remembered that Simpson is writing of the Gypsies of Scotland, a kingdom where the race is considerably advanced above those of any other country in civilization and in social position.

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