ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES
by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D.
First employed by Entick, in his edition of the Constitutions, in reference to the installation of the Earl of Kintore, in 1740, as Grand Master: “Who having been homaged and duly congratulated according to the forms and solemnity of Masonry.” He never repeats the word, using afterward the expression, “received the homage.” Noorthouck adopts this latter expression in three or four instances, but more generally employs the word “recognized” or “selected.” The expression “to do homage” to the Grand Master at his installation, although now generally disused, is a correct one not precisely in the feudal sense of homagium, the service of a bondman, but in the more modern one of cheerful reverence, obedience, and loyalty.
HONEST MASON CLUB
An early organization formed by certain members of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in the middle of the eighteenth century for the purpose of instructing the Scottish Brethren in the practice and history of Freemasonry and holding its meetings in Edinburgh. This club, while enthusiastically supported by its projectors, did not meet with success and went out of existence shortly after its inception, only to be revived about twenty-five years later by the forming of a group of Masonic Clubs in various parts of Scotland. These clubs were prohibited by the Grand Lodge because of their unfavorable criticism of the Grand Lodge transactions but in order to further the stated objects of the organization, Grand Lodge resolved to issue “temporary warrants, without fee, for holding Lodges of Instruction in any district or province when a majority of the Masters of the Lodges in the province should petition for it” (see History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, Mary’s Chapel, Brother David Murray Lyon, 1873, page 402). This offer has never been taken advantage of to any extent which, as Brother Lyon observes, leaves the Brethren of Scotland without any centralized method for the giving and receiving of instruction.
This was the title formerly given to the Degree of Fellow Craft.
When a Degree of Freemasonry is conferred honoris causa, that is, as a mark of respect, and without the payment of a fee, it is said to be conferred as an honorarium. This is seldom done in Ancient Craft Freemasonry; but it is not unusual in the advanced Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, which have sometimes been bestowed by Inspectors on distinguished Freemasons as an honorarium.
- The Mark Master’s Degree in the American system is called the honorary Degree of Mark Master, because it is traditionally supposed to have been conferred in the Temple upon a portion of the Fellow Crafts as a mark of honor and of trust. The Degrees of Past Master and of High Priesthood are also styled honorary, because each is conferred as an honorarium or reward attendant upon certain offices; that of Past Master upon the elected Master of a Symbolic Lodge, and that of High Priesthood upon the elected High Priest of a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons.
- These Degrees which are outside of the regular series, and which are more commonly known by the epithet Side Degrees, are also sometimes called Honorary Degrees, because no fee is usually exacted for them.
A schismatic Body which arose soon after the revival in the beginning of the eighteenth century, the members of which rejected the established formula of an obligation, and bound themselves to secrecy and obedience by a pledge of honor only. Lilie the Gregorians and the Gormogons, who arose about the same time, they soon died a natural death. A song of theirs, preserved in Carey’s Musical Century, is almost the only record left of their existence.
It is a custom in some Lodges to invest distinguished Freemasons with the rank and title of honorary membership. This confers upon them, as the by-laws may prescribe, sometimes all the rights of active membership and sometimes only the right of speaking, but always without the exaction of annual dues. Nor does honorary membership subject the person receiving it to the discipline of the Lodge further than to a revocation of the honor bestowed. The custom of electing honorary members is a usage of very modern date, and has not the sanction of the old Constitutions. It is common in France; less so, but not altogether unknown, in America and England. Oliver, in the title of one of his works, claimed honorary membership in more than nine Lodges. It may be considered unobjectionable as a method of paying respect to distinguished merit and Masonic services, when it is viewed only as a local regulation, and does not attempt to interfere with Masonic discipline. A Freemason who is expelled forfeits, of course, with his active membership in his own Lodge, his honorary membership in any other Lodge.
The Supreme Councils of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in the United States have adopted the custom of electing honorary members, who are sometimes called Honorary Thirty-Thirds. They possess none of the rights of Inspectors-General or Active Members, except that of being present at the meetings of the Council, taking part to a limited extent in its deliberations, except when it holds an Executive Session.
The earliest record that we have been able to discover is a letter of Morris Holbrook; December 2A, 1897 (volume x, page 208), of iczal Bulletins, Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. This letter was written to Brother J. J. J. Gourgas and, among other things, he says that Jeremy L. Cross was made an honorary member of this Supreme Council. The same Supreme Council provided for Honorary Thirty-thirds in the Statutes of 1855. Probably the specific idea in this particular case was to make honorary members of those Brethren of the Supreme Council of Louisiana who surrendered their Supreme Council in that year and amalgamated with the Southern Jurisdiction. From that time onward the Statutes contain provisions for Honorary Members.
The original number of Honorary Members in the United States of America was nine Sovereign Grand Inspectors-Central comprising a Supreme Council. The additional Thirty-third Degree Members were made only by vacancies occasioned by the death of one of the original nine.
The necessity arising from the circulation of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite Degrees in America brought about the appointment of Deputy Inspectors-General, assigned sometimes to States; at other times at large. Some of the records of these Deputy Inspectors-General notably omitted the numerical designation of Degree. As time passed on and the organization of Supreme Councils by the several factions proceeded, the number of Thirty-thirds grew. Thirty-three was the number set for a “regular” Supreme Council. After the union of the two Supreme Councils of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction in 1867, sixty-six was set as the limit and these were expressly defined to be Active Members. The proceedings of the early seventies indicate the differences of opinion resulting in the adjustment of the rite privileges to Honorary Members of the Supreme Council.
In the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite there is but one Thirty-third Degree and persons elected under the provisions of Article 17 of the Constitution became honorary members of the Supreme Council, not Honorary Thirty-third Degree Members-and this subject was carefully dealt with in the Proceedings of 1923 (pages 48 to 50).
Practically the same rule governs in the Southern Jurisdiction except that Honorary Members are invested with a different title, Inspectors-General Honorary (see Article 4, Section 8, of The Statutes).
HONOR, FEES OF
See Fees of Honor
The Grand Honors of Freemasonry are those peculiar acts and gestures by which the Craft have always been accustomed to express their homage, their joy, or their grief on memorable occasions. In the Symbolic Degrees of the American Rite, they are of two kinds, the private and public, which are used on different occasions and for different purposes.
The Private Grand Honors of Freemasonry are performed in a manner known only to Master Masons, since they can only be used in a Master’s Lodge. They are practiced by the Craft only on four occasions; when a Masonic Hall is to be consecrated, a new Lodge to be constituted, a Master Elect to be installed, or a Grand Master, or his Deputy, to be received on an official visitation to a Lodge. They are used at all these ceremonies as tokens of congratulation and homage. And as they can only be given by Master Masons, it is evident that every consecration of a hall, or constitution of a new Lodge, every installation of a Worshipful Master, and every reception of a Grand Master, must be done in the Third Degree. It is also evident, from what has been said, that the mode and manner of giving the private Grand Honors can only be personally communicated to Master Masons. They Ere among the aporrheta- the things forbidden to be divulged.
The Public Grand Honors, as their name imports, do not partake of this secret character. They are given on all public occasions, in the presence of the profane as well as the initiated. They are used at the laying of corner-stones of public buildings, or in other services in which the ministrations of the Fraternity are required, and especially in funerals. They are given in the following manner: Both arms are crossed on the breast, the left uppermost, and the open palms of the hands sharply striking the shoulders; they are then raised above the head, the palms striking each other, and then made to fall smartly upon the thighs. This is repeated three times, and as there are three blows given each time, namely, on the breast, on the palms of the hands, and on the thigh making nine concussions in all, the Grand Honors are technically said to be given “by three times three.” On the occasion of funerals, each one of these honors is accompanied by the words, The will of God is accomplished; so mote it be, audibly pronounced by the Brethren.
These Grand Honors of Freemasonry have undoubtedly a classical origin, and are but an imitation of the plaudits and acclamations practiced by the ancient Greeks and Romans in their theaters, their senates, and their public games. There is abundant evidence in the writings of the ancients, that in the days of the empire, the Romans had circumscribed the mode of doing homage to their emperors and great men when they made their appearance in public, and of expressing their approbation of actors at the theater, within as explicit rules and regulations as those that govern the system of giving the Grand Honors in Freemasonry. This was not the case in the earlier ages of Rome, for Ovid, speaking of the Sabines, says that when they applauded, they did so without any rules of art, In medio plausu, plausus tunc arte carebat.
Propertius speaks, at a later day, of the ignorance of the country people, who, at the theaters, destroyed the general harmony by their awkward attempts to join in the modulated applause of the more skillful citizens.
The ancient Romans had carried their science on this subject to such an extent as to have divided these honors into three kinds, differing from each other in the mode in which the hands were struck against each other, and in the sound that thence resulted. Suctonius, in his life of Nero (chapter xx), gives the names of these various kinds of applause, which he says were called bombi, imbrices, testoe, and Seneea, in his Quaestionum Naturalium, gives a description of the manner in which they were executed. The bombi, or hums, were produced by striking the palms of the hands together, while they were in a hollow or concave position, and doing this at frequent intervals, but with little force, so as to imitate the humming sound of a swarm of bees. The imbrices, or tiles, were made by briskly striking the flattened and extended palms of the hands against each other, so as to resemble the sound of hail pattering upon the tiles of a roof. The testae, or earthen vases, were executed by striking the palm of the left hand, with the fingers of the right collected into one point. By this blow a sound was elicited which imitated that given out by an earthen vase when struck by a stick.
The Romans, and other ancient nations, having invested this system of applauding with all the accuracy of a science, used it in its various forms, not only for the purpose of testifying their approbation of actors in the theater, but also bestowed it, as a mark of respect or a token of adulation, on their e:nperors, and other great men, on the occasion of their making their appearance in public. Huzzas and cheers have, in this latter case, been generally adopted by the moderns, while the manual applause is only appropriated to successful public speakers and declaimers.
The Freemasons, however, have altogether preserved the ancient custom of applause, guarding and regulating its use by as strict, though different rules as did the Romans; and thus showing, as another evidence of the antiquity of their Institution, that the Grand Honors of Freemasonry are legitimately derived from the plausus, or applaudings, practice I by the ancients on public occasions. In the advanced Decrees, and in other Rites, the Grand Honors are different from those of Ancient Craft Freemasonry in the American Rite as, indeed, are those of England from those of the United States.
A symbol of the secrecy, silence, and darkness in which the mysteries of our art should be preserved from the unhallowed gaze of the profane. It has been supposed to have a symbolic reference to the passage in Saint John’s Gospel (I, 5), “And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.” But it is more certain that there is in the hoodwink a representation of the mystical darkness which always preceded the rites of the ancient initiations.
The second round in the theological and Masonic ladder, and symbolic of a hope in immortality. It is appropriately placed there, for, having attained the first, or faith in God, we are led by a belief in His wisdom and goodness to the hope of immortality. This is but a reasonable expectation; without it, virtue would lose its necessary stimulus and vice its salutary fear; life would be devoid of joy, and the grave but a scene of desolation. The ancients represented Hope by a nymph or maiden holding in her hand a bouquet of opening flowers, indicative of the coming fruit; but in modern and Masonic iconology, the science of Craft illustrations and likenesses, it is represented by a virgin leaning on an anchor, the anchor itself being a symbol of hope (see Immortality of the Soul).
A manuscript cops of the old Constitutions, which is in the possession of the Lodge of Hope at Bradford, in England. The parchment roll on which this Constitution is written is six feet long and six inches wide, and is defaced and worn away at the lower edge. Its date is supposed to be about l680. From a transcript in the possession of the late Brother A. F. A. Woodford, whose correctness is certified to by the Master of the Lodge, Brother Hughan first published it in his Old Charades of the British Freemasons.
HORN OF PLENTY
The jewel of the Steward of a Lodge (see Cornucopia).
HORNS OF THE ALTAR
In the Jewish Temple, the altars of burnt-offering and of incense had each at the four corners four horns of shittim wood, shittim being a species of acacia having yellowish wood. Among the Jews, as well as all other ancient peoples, the altar was considered peculiarly holy and privileged; and hence, when a criminal, fleeing took hold of these horns, he found an asylum and safety. As the Masonic altar is a representation of the altar of the Solomonic member, it should be constructed with these horns; and Brother Cross has very properly so represented it in his Hieroglyphic Chart.
The word of acclamation used by the French Freemasons of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. In some of the Cahiers it is spelled Ozee. It is, as Brother Mackey believed, a corruption of the word Huzza, which has been used by the English and American Freemasons of the same Rite.
HOSMER, HESIKIAH LORD
First Chief Justice of Montana, appointed by President Lincoln, 186S, he organized orderly justice from frontier violence. Born at Hudson, New York, December 10, 1814, he died at San Francisco, California, October 31, 1893. Studied law at Cleveland, Ohio; was editor of the Toledo Blade, and author of the novel “Octoroon,” 1859, prompting Boucicault’s play of that name. Hosmer in 1861 was at Washington as Secretary of House Committee on Territories. Judge Hosmer published in 1887 “Bacon and Shakespeare in the Sonnets.” Made a Freemason in Wood County Lodge No. 112, Ohio, 1843, going ten miles into the forest for the Degrees, the Morgan excitement still causing much bitterness; exalted in Circleville Chapter No. 20, Ohio, 1845, and knighted, Toledo Commandery No. 7, 1847. At Toledo he was Master of Rubicon Lodge No. 237; High Priest, Fort Meigs Chapter No. 29, and for several years Eminent Commander, Toledo Commandery No. 7. He became Grand King, Grand Chapter of Ohio; Grand Orator and then Deputy Grand Master, Grand Lodge of Ohio; at Cleveland, 1851, delivering an eloquent address to the Grand Lodge. In Montana in 1865 he was first Master of Montana Lodge No. 2, and six years Eminent Commander of Virginia City Commandery No. 1. In the Grand Lodge of Montana he was for several years Chairman, Foreign Correspondence Committee, and for two years, 1870-1, Grand Secretary. At death he had been thirteen years Prelate of Golden Gate Commandery No. 16, San Francisco, and ten years Grand Prelate of the Grand Commandery of California. An accomplished and impressive ritualist, an able civic and Masonic official (see Proceedings, Grand Lodge of Montana, 1903, page 62, and volume ui, Transactions, Historical Society of Montana, 1890).
An officer in each of the Bodies of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, and in the Modern French Rite, one whose duty it is to collect obligatory contributions of the members, and, as the custodian, to disburse the sane, under the advisement of the Master, to needy Brethren, or even worthy profanes who may be in distress. The fund is entirely a secret one, and is reserved apart from all other receipts and disbursements.
See Rnight Hospzfaler
HOSPITALERS OF JERUSALEM
In the middle of the eleventh century, some merchants of Amalfi, a rich city of the kingdom of Naples, while trading in Egypt, obtained from the Calif Monstaser Billah permission to establish hospitals in the city of Jerusalem for the use of poor and sick Catholic pilgrims. A site was assigned to them close to the Holy Sepulcher, on which they erected a chapel dedicated to the Virgin, giving it the name of Saint Mary ad Latinos, to distinguish it from those churches where the service was performed according to this Greek ritual.
The building was completed in the year 1048; and at the same time two hospitals, one for either sex, were erected in the vicinity of the chapel for the reception of pilgrims. Subsequently each of these hospitals had a separate chapel annexed to it; that for the men being dedicated to Saint John the Almoner, and that for the women to Saint Mary Magdalen. Many of the pilgrims who had experienced the kindness so liberally bestowed upon all wayfarers, abandoned all idea of returning to Europe, and formed themselves into a band of charitable assistants, and, without assuming any regular, religious profession, devoted themselves to the service of the hospital and the care of its sick inmates. The chief cities of the south of Europe subscribed liberally for the support of this institution; and the merchants of Amalfi who were its original founders acted as the stewards of their bounty, which was greatly augmented from the favorable reports of grateful pilgrims who had returned home, and the revenues of the hospital were thus much increased. The associates assumed the name of Hospitalers of Jerusalern. Afterward, taking up arms for the protection of the holy places against the Saracens, they called themselves Knights Hospitalers, a title which they subsequently changed to that of Knights of Rhodes, and finally to that of Knights of Malta.
This virtue has always been highly esteemed among Freemasons. Nothing is more usual in diplomas or certificates than to recommend the bearer “to the hospitality of all the Brethren wheresoever dispersed over the globe”; a recommendation that is seldom disregarded. All of the old Constitutions detail the practice of hospitality, as one of the duties of the Craft, in language like this: “Every Mason shall receive and cherish strange fellows when they come over the countries.”
HOST, CAPTAIN OF THE
See Captain of the Host
HOUDON, JEAN ANTOINE
Celebrated French sculptor; born March 20, 1741, at Versailles; died at Paris on July 16, 1828. His name appears on the list of members of the Lodge of the Nine Sisters at Paris for 1779, 1783, 1784 and those of 1806, where he is designated as the “Imperial Sculptor, Member of the Institute, and Professor.” At twelve entered the Royal School of Sculpture, won the Prize of Rome at twenty, and became famous for his statues and busts of prominent people. Came to the United States with Franklin and was for a time with Washington at Mount Vernon His statues of Washington and Voltaire are especially well known.
An officer of the Grand Orient of France in 1804. Grand Orator of the Grand Chapter in 1814.
HOUEL, JEAN PIERRE LOUIS LAURENT
French engraver and painter, born at Rouen about 1735, studied painting and engraving in Italy, and also wrote four volumes entitled voyage Pittoresque de Sicile, de Malte, et de Lipari, 1782-7. His name is listed on the rosters of the Lodge of the Nine Sisters at Paris for the years 1783, 1784, 1806. Brother Houël died on November 14, 1813, at Paris.
An emblem connected with the Third Degree, according to the Webb lectures, to remind us by the quick passage of its sands of the transitory nature of human life. As a Masonic symbol it is of comparatively modern date, but the use of the hourglass as an emblem of the passage of time is older than our oldest known rituals. Thus, in a speech before Parliament, in 1627, it is said: “We may dan dandle and play with the hour-glass that is in our power, but the hour will not stay for us; and an opportunity once lost cannot be regained.” We are told in Notes and Queries (First Series, v, page 223) that in the early part of the eighteenth century it was a custom to inter an hour-glass with the dead, as an emblem of the sand of life being run out.
There is in Sir John Soane’s Museum, Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London, a manuscript account book, of 1614- 41, once owned by Nicholas Stone, Mason to King James I and Charles I, which on the title page has the following written note:
In time take time while time doth last,
For time is no time wheel time is past.
A few sad and studious lines written in his Bible by Sir Falter Raleigh are found in Cayley’s biography of him (volume in, chapter ix):
E’en such is time! which takes in trust
Our youth, our joys, and an we have
And pays us naught but age and dust,
Which, in the dark and silent grave,
When we have wandered all our ways,
Shuts up the story of our days.
And from which grave, and earth, and dust
The Lord will raise me up, I trust.
Longfellow, in his “Sand of the Desert in an Hour glass,” has written thus:
A handful of red sand from the hot clime
Of Arab deserts brought
Within the glass comes the spy of Time,
The minister of Thought.
An hour-glass is in the possession of the Lodge at Alexandria, Virginia, of which our Brother George Washington was Master.
That old treasure, a measure of the flying moments, well exhibits the changing methods brought about in time.
The language of Freemasonry, in reference to the hours of labor and refreshment, is altogether symbolical. The old lectures contained a tradition that our ancient Brethren wrought six days in the week and twelve hours in the day, being called off regularly at the hour of high twelve from labor to refreshment. In the French and German systems, the Craft were said to be called from labor at low twelve, or midnight, which is therefore the supposed or fictitious time at which a French or German Lodge is closed. But in the English and American systems the Craft are supposed to be called off at high twelve, and when called on again the time for recommencing labor is said to be “one hour past high twelve”: all this refers to Ancient Craft Freemasonry. In some of the advanced Degrees the hours designated for labor or rest are different. So, too, in the different Rites: thus, in the system of Zinnendorf, it is said that there are in a Mason’s Lodge five hours, namely, twelve struck, noon, high noon, midnight, and high midnight; which are thus explained: Twelve struck, is before the Lodge is opened and after it is closed; noon is when the Master is about to open the Lodge; high noon, when it is duly open; midnight, when the Master is about to close it; and high midnight, when it is closed and the uninitiated are permitted to draw near.
HOURS OF INITIATION
In Masonic Lodges, as they were in the Ancient Mysteries, initiations are always at night. No Lodges ever meet in the daytime for that purpose, if it can be avoided.
More recently than the time of brother Mackey there have been in the United States and in Europe a number of Masonic Bodies which meet in the afternoon because of greater convenience, the majority of the members being connected with the Stage, the Press, and similar businesses (see Night).
Born March 2, 1792; died July 26, 1863. First president of the Republic of Texas in 1836 and later governor of Texas under American rule in 1861. Made a Freemason in 1817, in Cumberland Lodge No. 8, Nashville, Tennessee, and became affiliated with Holland Lodge No. 1, Houston, in 1837. He presided over the Masonic Convention held to create the first Grand Lodge of Texas (see NeuJ Age Magazine, March, 1924; also Mackey’s History of Freemasonry, page 1613).
HOW GO SQUARES
The question was one of the earliest of the tests which were common in the eighteenth century. In the Grand Mystery, published in 1724, we find it in the following form:
- Q. :How go squares?
- A. Straight.
It is noteworthy, that this phrases has an earlier date than the eighteenth century, and did not belong exclusively to the Freemasons. In Thomas May’s comedy of The Old Couple, published in 1658, Act iv, scene I (see also Dodsley’s Colkstion of Old Plays, volume 10), will be found the following passage:
- Sir Argent Scrape. Ha! Mr. Frightful, welcome.
- How go squares? What do you think of me to make a bridegroom? Do I look young enough?
H.-. R.-. D.-. M.-.
An abbreviation of Heredom or Herodem
The name of the chief god among the Druids, commonly called Hu Gadarn, or Hu the Mighty. He is thus described by one of the Welsh bards: “The smallest of the small, Hu is the mighty in the world’s judgment; yet he is the greatest and Lord over us and our God of mystery. His course is light and swift, his car is a particle of bright sunshine. He is great on land and sea, the greatest whom I shall behold, greater than the worlds. Offer not indignity to him, the Great and Beautiful.” Bryant and Davies, in accordance with their arkite theory, think that he was Noah deified; but the Masonic scholar will be reminded of the Hi-hu taken by the Cabalists out of the name of Jehovah.
A word equivalent among the Stone Masons of Germany, in the Middle Ages, to the English word Lodge. Findel defines it as “a booth made of boards erected near the edifice that was being built, where the stone-cutters kept their tools, carried on their work, assembled, and most probably occasionally ate and slept.” These Hütten accord exactly with the Lodges which Wren describes as having been erected by the English Masons around the edifice they were constructing.