ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES
by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D.
This word is found in the French handbooks of the advanced Degrees. It is undoubtedly a corruption of Jacquesson, and this a mongrel word compounded of the French Jacques and the English son, and means the son of James, that is, James II. It refers to Charles Edward the Pretender, who was the son of that abdicated and exiled monarch. It is a significant relic of the system attempted to be introduced by the adherents of the house of Stuart, and by which they expected to enlist Freemasonry as an instrument to effect the restoration of the Pretender to the throne of England. For this purpose they had altered the legend of the Third Degree, making it applicable to James II, who, being the son of Henrietta Maria, the widow of Charles I, was designated as the Widow’s Son.
JENA, CONGRESS OF
Jena is a city of SaxeWeimar, in Thuringia. A Masonic Congress was b convoked there in 1763, by the Lodge of Strict Observance, under the presidency of Johnson, a Masonic charlatan or fraud, whose real name was Becker. In this Congress the doctrine was announced that the Freemasons were the successors of the Knights Templar, a dogma peculiarly characteristic of the Rite of Strict Observance. In the year 1764, a second Congress was convoked by Johnson or Leucht with the desire of authoritatively establishing his doctrine of the connection between Templarism and Freemasonry. The empirical character of Johnson was here discovered by the Baron Hund, and he was denounced, and subsequently punished at Magdeburg by the public authorities.
A Judge of Israel, and the leader of the Gileadites in their war against the Ephraimites, which terminated in the slaughter of so many of the latter at the passes of the river Jordan (see Ephraimites).
The First Degree in the American Order of the Eastern Star, or Adoptive Rite. It inculcates obedience. Color, blue (see Eastern Star, Order of the).
JERICHO, HEROINE OF
See Heroine of Jericho
Anderson says in the Constitutions (1738, page 101) that Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans, was Grand Master and held a General Assembly on the 27th of December, 1663, at which six Regulations, which he quotes, were made. Roberts, in his edition of the Old Constitutions printed in 1722, the earliest printed Masonic book that we have, refers also to this General Assembly; the date of which he, hoxvever, makes the 8th of December. Roberts gives what he calls the Additional Orders and Constitulions. The Harleian Manuscript, in the British Museum, numbered 1942, which Brother Hughan supposes to have the date of 1670, and which he has published in his Old Chargers of the British Freemasons (page 52, edition of 1872), contains also six new articles. The articles in Robert’s and the Harleian Manuscript are identical, but the wording is slightly altered by Anderson after his usual fashion. Of these new articles, one of the most important is that which prescribes that the society of Freemasons shall thereafter be governed by a Master and Wardens. Brother Hughan thinks that there is no evidence of the statement that a General Assembly was held in 1663. But it would seem that the concurring testimony of Roberts in 1722 and of Anderson in 1738, with the significant fact that the charges are found in a manuscript written seven years after, give some plausibility to the statement that a General Assembly was held at that time.
JERROLD, J. J.
Wrote a song, Grey Head, sung bv Brother Collyer in aid of the Home for Aged and Decayed Freemasons at London, 1838.
The capital of Judea, and memorable in Masonic history as the place where was erected the Temple of Solomon. It is early mentioned in Scripture, and is supposed to be the Salem of which Melchizedek was King. At the time that the Israelites entered the Promised Land, the city was in possession of the Jebusites, from whom, after the death of Joshua, it was conquered, and afterward inhabited by the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. The Jebusites were not, however, driven out; and we learn that David purchased Mount Moriah from Ornan or Araunah the Jebusite as a site for the Temple. It is only in reference to this Temple that Jerusalem is connected with the legends of Ancient Craft Freemasonry. In the Degrees of Chivalry it is also important, because it was the city where the holy places were situated, and for the possession of which the Crusaders so long and so bravely contested. It was there, too, that the Templars and the Hospitalers were established as Orders of religious and military knighthood. Modern Speculative Freemasonry was introduced into Jerusalem by the establishment of a Lodge in 1872, the Warrant for which, on the application of Brother Rob Morris and others, was granted by the Grand Lodge of Canada. More recently a Lodge has been warranted in England to meet at Chester, but to be in due course removed to Jerusalem, named King Solomon’s Temple, No. 3464. A Lodge was consecrated by English authority in Jerusalem in 1924. The Grand Orient of France has also established a Lodge there.
JERUSALEM, KNIGHT OF
See Knight of Jerusalem
The symbolic name of the Christian Church (Revelations xxi, 2-21; in, 12). The Apostle John (Revelations xxi), from the summit of a high mountain, beheld, in a pictorial symbol or scenic representation, a city resplendent with celestial brightness, which seemed to descend from the heavens to the earth. It was stated to be a square of about 400 miles, or 12,000 stadia, equal to about 16,000 miles in circumference—of course, a mystical number, denoting that the city was capable of holding almost countless myriads of inhabitants. The Netu Jerusalem was beheld, like Jacob’s ladder, extending from earth to heaven. It plays an important part in the ceremony of the Nineteenth Degree, or Grand Pontiff of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, where the descent of the Sew Jerusalem is a symbol of the descent of the Empire of Light and Truth upon the earth.
JERUSALEM, PRINCE OF
See Prince of Jerusalem
In the Grand Mystery of the Freemasons Discovered of 1724 occurs the following demand and answer:
- Give me the Jerusalem Word:
The origin of this phrase may perhaps be thus traced: The theory that after the completion of the Temple a portion of the workmen traveled abroad to seek employment, while another portion remained at Jerusalem, was well known to the Fraternity at the beginning of the eighteenth century. It is amply detailed in that old manuscript known as the York Manuscript, which is now lost, but was translated by Krause, and inserted in his Runsturkunden. It may be supposed that this Jerusalem Word was the word which the Freemasons used at Jerusalem, while the University Word, which is given in the next question and answer, was the word common to the Craft everywhere. The Jerusalem Word, as such, is no longer in use, but the Universal Word is still connected with the First Degree.
A large candlestick, of metal, with many sconces, hanging from the ceiling, and symbolically referring to the Branch of Jesse.
Usually so called, but more formally named the Royal Order of Jesters, an organization evolved out of the good fellowship of members of the Mystic Shrine during a voyage to Honolulu, February 15 to March 7, l911. An offhand ceremony grew into a ritual, and to local Courts and a National Body, very much of its success due to the initiative of William S. Brown, many years the Treasurer of the Mystic Shrine; Lou B. Winsor, Past Imperial Potentate and Grand Secretary of Michigan, and others of their genial kind who organized and led the Body whose local units were limited to thirteen initiates yearly. Initiation, by invitation, and unanimous ballot, limited to members in good standing of the Mystic Shrine. The slogan, “Mirth is lying,” expounded by Jester Brown, and the poem by Edmund Rowland Sill, “The Fool’s Prayer,” recited by Jester Winsor, have furnished inspiration. Officers, thirteen, bear the titles: Director, Tragedian, b Property Man, Impresario, Treasurer, Soubrette, Light Comedian, Serio Comic, Heavy Man, Leading Lady, Judge, High Constable, Stage Manager; the national officers’ titles are the same but preceded by the word Royal.
In the eighteenth century the Jesuits were charged with having an intimate connection with Freemasonry, and the invention of the Degree of Kadosh was even attributed to those members of the Society who constituted the College of Clermont. This theory of a Jesuitical Freemasonry seems to have originated with the Illuminati, who were probably governed in its promulgation by a desire to depreciate the character of all other Masonic systems in comparison with their own, where no such priestly interference was permitted. Barruel scoffs at the idea of such a connection, and cans it (Histoire de Jacobinisme iv, page 287) “la fable de la Franc-Maçonnerie Jésuitique” meaning an invention of false or Jesuitical Freemasonry. For once he is right. Like oil and water the tolerance of Freemasonry and the intolerance of the “Society of Jesus” cannot commingle. Yet it cannot be denied that, while the Jesuits have had no part in the construction of pure Freemasonry, there are reasons for believing that they took an interest in the invention of some Degrees and systems which were intended to advance their own interests. But wherever they touched the Institution they left the trail of the serpent.
They sought to convert its pure philanthropy and toleration into political intrigue and religious bigotry. Hence it is believed that they had something to do with the invention of those Degrees, which were intended to aid the exiled house of Stuart in its efforts to regain the English throne, because they believed that would secure the restoration in England of the Roman Catholic religion. Almost a library of books has been written on both sides of this subject in Germany and in France.